1.1 Background to the Study
An insurgency is known to be an armed rebellion against law enforcement or an authority. Usually, insurgency arises whenever a group of dissatisfied persons decides to stage an armed attack against the government of a country. As such, recruitment for insurgency becomes very easy since the common indicator of an insurgent is dissatisfaction with governmental policies, which thus feed into finding outlets for the seething grievances. This translates to the fact that the justification for engagement in uprisings against the government is that such is a fight for a just cause that might be beneficial to their country in years ahead.
An instance of insurgency is the Communist insurgent group in the Philippines, traceable to the early 19th century, precisely 1968 and still exists till date. It has outlasted martial law and four democratically elected governments. Despite what many consider as anachronistic ideology, the insurgency has endured, because many of its criticisms like income inequality, human rights abuses and broader social injustice still resonate with some Filipinos. Equally, since the 1960s, the Southern region of Thailand experienced the same dimension of insurgency challenges as the Philippines, and this is still ongoing.
It started as an ethnic conflict, involving 4 provinces- Songkhla, Pattani, Yala and Narathiwat. Since onset, the insurgents have become increasingly violent. The insurgency formed from these four provinces was ruthless and sees no reason for negotiating either with the government or with other insurgent groups. Thai analysts believed that foreign Islamic terrorist groups were infiltrating the area and that foreign funds and arms were being brought into the country; this has served as both the major cause and driver of insurgency in Southern Thailand. The United Kingdom has also had its fair share of insurgency. The Jewish insurgency in Palestine dates back to 1939-1948 at the British Mandatory Palestine. It occurred as a result of violent campaigns carried out by Jewish underground groups against the British forces and officials which led to the death of dozens of British soldiers, Jewish militants and civilians.
Insurgency in Nigeria can be dated far back to 20th November 1999 and is still existing till date and it is stronger than it has ever been before. It‟s concentrated in the Northern states of Nigeria but most prominent in Borno state. Looking back at the history of Nigeria, there has not been any serious and intense insurgent group which led to death of over 1500 people since it started. Although there were crisis and conflict among ethnic groups, nothing made headlines like the Boko Haram insurgent group in Nigeria.
Before we go into proper analysis of the activities, aims and movement of the terrorist group, we have to have an idea of the word „terrorism‟. Terrorism is gotten from the root word „terror‟ which simply means instilling fear into people. It‟s usually random and unpredictable. The practice of terrorism can be traced back to 1st century AD Sicarri Zealouts who got their name from hiding sicae or small daggers in their cloaks in order to kill Romans who offended them publicly. Since then, every country has had its fair share of terrorists whose sole aim is international recognition or causing fear and havoc in the state. Various terror attacks include bombings, car attacks, kidnapping, arson or hijacking a commercial aircraft.,…..
1.2. Statement of the Problem
In taking a critical look at the insurgent group, there are a number of problems that caused the insurgency. Before the boko haram came into existence, Nigeria had recorded no act of terrorism. And aside the experience of the Maitatsine‟s insurgency in 1984/85 and militancy in the oil laden Niger Delta between the close of last century and the start of the 21st century, the country did not witness any form of insurgent attack within its confines. Although people had their varying perspectives of the government and the system alike, there was never any case of any group getting furious to the extent of engaging in arson, kidnapping or carnage.
The attacks by the boko haram operatives are highly convoluted, hence the difficulty the military are experiencing in combatting the insurgent group; and more so, in pre-empting their next line of action. On this basis, the multi-pronged attack of the Boko Haram has negatively impacted most of the residents of the Northeastern states of Adamawa, Borno and Yobe; hence, the situation has produced a robust migrant population from the zone. It is therefore in this light that the study focuses on the:
a. the extent of Boko Haram‟s impact on the Nigerian economy;
b. numerous impacts of the terror activities of Boko Haram on the mass of the Northeastern states citizens;
c. The challenges bedeviling the Nigerian army/JTF in tackling the insurgency. The multi-dimensional external assistance against Boko Haram.
1.3. Objective of the Study.
The broad objective of this study is to assess the boko haram insurgent group in Nigeria and the totality of government efforts in curbing it. Other specific objectives are to;
i. examine the purposes and the approaches of the Boko Haram terror group;
ii. identify the numerous effects of Boko Haram activities on Nigeria;
iii. analyze how Nigeria is responding to the complexity of security issues engendered by the terror group; and iv. Investigate the challenges and limitations facing Nigeria in terms of adequately responding to Boko Haram.
1.4. Research Questions
i. What are the purposes of the insurgent group and how can they be managed?
ii. What are the general effects of the Boko Haram insurgent group on Nigeria as a whole?
iii. How has terrorism changed he attitude of Nigerians against each other and how does religion play a major role in the insurgency?
iv. What challenges are the Nigerian army and intelligence agencies facing in tackling the insurgent group?
1.5. Research Hypothesis
The hypothesis on which this study is based is stated in the null and alternative form as follows;
i. H0; Boko Haram has not affected every sector of the Nigerian economy
H1; Boko Haram has affected every sector of the Nigerian economy
ii. H0; terrorism has not changed the attitude and living conditions of Nigerian