Background of the Study
The twentieth century has brought growth and improvement to Business Education Courses in the area of information and Communication Technology. The rate of growth in information handling is quite alarming and has posed great challenges to all business educators (Olivers and Bernard, 2010).
Business education course is run in education institutions all over the world. Although their structures may vary, the aims of the courses are consistent. According to America Vocational Association (AVA) in Osuala (2004) described business education as a programme of instruction which consists of two parts.
- Office Education, a vocational education programme for office careers through initial, and upgrading education leading to employability and advancement in office occupations, and
- General business education, a programme to provide students with information and competencies which are needed by all in managing personal business affairs and in using the services of the business world.
Makeri (1990) noted that Business Education is an educational programme that prepares students not only for entry into advancement, but also prepares individuals to handle their own business affairs and to function intelligently as consumers and citizens.
Njoku (2007) further posited that it is educational programme that equips the recipients with functional saleable skills; knowledge and attitude/value that enable them operate in the environment they find themselves. This operational statement buttresses business education as a study that provides the skills, knowledge and competencies needed for managing any successful business outfit, and also makes the recipients of business education programme to be self-reliant or employer of labour.
From the above definitions, it is crystal clear that business education has a variety of benefits to make the youth useful as an employee, an entrepreneur or to be self-reliant. The fact remains that business education enhances job creation and entrepreneurship development. The general aim of business education is to provide students with saleable skills and competencies needed to enhance the productive capacity of the citizens and to produce better consumers of goods and services (NCCE 2002).
Mebane (2000) said that the products of business education constitute very critical inputs to production in the quest for economic and national development. The rate of development of a nation depends on availability and utilization of ICT resources in all fields of economy. It will be shameful if the products of business education are found wanting in the world of work already permeated by these innovations. Nigerians are currently living in computer age. It can be vividly said that there is no area of life that does not have its own share of ICT resources as it affects our personal life, education, games, government and many more (Awuya and Iwuga 2000). To Onumah (2006) Information and Communication Technology Resources are vital factors in the students’ knowledge, acquisition of skills and ideas. Education would be failing woefully unless lecturers are familiar with the use of CD ROMs, E-mail, Internet, and on-line database searching.
Availability means to be available, find or get in abundant. Necessary Information and Communication Technology resources that are supposed to be available for teaching as well as keeping of school records, retrieving records, word-processing, analyzing students’ performance, searching for knowledge include: electronic learning facilities (computer assisted learning, tutorial drills, database and excel, computer assisted design, spreadsheets, word processor, computer assisted testing), telephone, websites, fax/facsimile, electronic library, internet facilities, global system for mobile communication, white board, bulleting board, television lesson, radio broadcast, reprographic machine, storage devices, (compact disc), teleconferencing device, electronic-mail, interacting radio counseling, interactive voice system, audio-cassette, micrographic system, power-point device, photocopier, microfilm and computer to mention but a few. Information communication technology resources have become critical tools for professional training.
Utilization means ability to use something for practical purpose. It implies that the sooner the learners find and know how to use ICT resources, the easier they can find the way to capture the newest methods of data acquisition and transformation of knowledge (Ngurukwem 2005).
Before ICT resources became widely used, different methods and equipment were used by teachers to teach, record, store, retrieve information and conduct researches. Some of these equipments include: filing cabinet, manual typewriter, tape-recorder, concrete objects and analogue telephone to mention but a few. Some of these methods of teaching also include: lecture, assignment, excursion and so on. As the volume of work increased, the need also arose for more efficient and effective ways of passing and managing information. In tertiary institutions, manual information systems are giving way to electronic information systems (Igbinoba 2005).
According to Lucy (1987), ICT is the acquisition, processing, storage and dissemination of vocal, pictorial, textual and numeric information by a micro electronic based combination of computing and telecommunications. Oliver and Chapman (1990) see ICT as the technology which supports activities involving the creation, storage, manipulation and communication of information together with their related method, management and application. Teaching of Business Courses could be simplified and made more effective through the use of ICT resources. ICT resources have been found to effectively aid instruction in the area of tutorial, drill and practice, test administration, test question banking, management of instruction and simulation.
The areas where ICT resources are used in teaching Business include:
Computerization of students’ records, learning records, learning process: (Computer Assisted Learning, (CAL), Computer Managed Learning (CML), Computer Based Training (CBT), Computer Aided Design (CAD) and so on, Library automation, and Research activities, etc.
The computerization of students’ records, examination records and library automation simply mean the use of computer for information processing in the various quarters. Another relevant area is the Computer Assisted Learning (CAL) otherwise known as Computer Aided Instruction (CAI) or Computer Based Training (CBT). This generally has to do with the use of computer for teaching. In other words, it depicts a situation whereby the computer is being programmed to assist the students in learning some courses.
With the advent of multi-media systems, CAL offers both Visual (character/graphic) display; as well as audio (sound) through a set of speakers. The system thus facilitates the work of the lecturers by enabling students to move at their own pace without stress (Osuala 2004). This implies that:
- Students can write essay on a word-processor instead of using typewriter.
- Student can employ e-mail services for mailing assignments, making enquiries and assessing course materials.
Other application areas of ICT in teaching business education courses are:
- Computer-based tools designed to make complex tasks easier or faster; word processor/laptops for writing, data based managers and statistics programmes for analyzing data and spread sheet for budget. Also, communication and artistic words that combine sounds and moving images can now be produced as readily as text.
- Prospective students can scan through internet to view various Schools and other programmes, and make their choice.
- Homework/assignment on courses like typewriting and shorthand etc can be given to students using the GSM or Fax machine.
- Teleconferencing, an interactive session of discussion group, Seminar and Conferences and many more.
Morrison (1989) and U.S. Congress 1988) rightly observed that the proposals for using ICT in education are so varied that it is no more an exaggeration to presume that there are ways to use ICT resources to teach and learn everything.
The need for utilization of ICT resources in teaching of Business Education Courses cannot be over emphasized. The primary functions of ICT resources are: to make teaching faster, easier and more effective. According to Igbinoba (2004), teachers’ duties include: imparting knowledge, keeping school records such as students’ results, retrieving students’ documents, analyzing students’ performances, setting of examination questions, carrying out research work and many more. The performance of the above mentioned duties could be greatly enhanced through the use of ICT resources such as fax machine, computer system, internet accessing, copiers, word processors etc.
Michael (2003) posited that the use of ICT in teaching Business Education can enable students to develop autonomy in learning independent group activities to complement the effort of lecturers. Also, lecturers can teach one thousand (1000) students simultaneously through computer network like Local Area Network (LAN). Furthermore, Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM), Telephone, E-mail facilities can be employed as effective communication tools between lecturers and their students. In short, the argument for the use of ICT resources by Michael (2003) is all encompassing as it covers several areas of teaching/learning interest which also includes students’ abilities to make good judgment about the benefit of ICT to their work and creativity in handling ICT resources in the present age. In addition, to the benefit identified above, Oladunjoye and Morrison (2002) agreed that a considerable number of graduates in business education are likely to find employment in electronic working environment designed to enhance the speed and efficiency of producing and disseminating products and services to consumers.
Akinyele (2008) pointed out the problems of ICT as it is prone to plagiarism and forms of academic frauds. This is already seen in Handsets, Students’ Projects, Thesis Submission, Paper submitted for Journal Publication and Paper Presentation. There is threat of security and privacy of information on the internet. Most confidential information stored by lecturers is at risk and insecure if such information is stolen. Introducing viruses into the computer system could also disrupt the work of the lecturers as many files and data could be lost through this crime.
Also, there is a general belief that in the future, information and communication technology would lead to unemployment, as most of the lecturers’ jobs would have been replaced with machines. Aja (2002) supported this statement that “technology has tended to escalate the fear of white collar workers who believe that technology causes unemployment or loss of jobs”.
Other problems confronting the usage of ICT resources in teaching business education course as highlighted by Eruanga (2005) are: anxiety, computer pornography, common with students in tertiary institutions, promotion of laziness on the part of lecturers, cost of hardware and software, invasion of privacy, promotion of frauds and crimes, creation of digital division within class among students, shifting attention from the primary goal of learning processing to development of ICT skills which is secondary goal.
The application of ICT in teaching business education courses faces a lot of barriers and challenges. Effiong (2005) submitted the following as barriers to effective teaching of business education courses and ICT in Nigeria especially Ogun State.
- The level of poverty among Nigerians is so high that many lecturers can still not afford personal computers/Laptops for themselves to sustain computer training they required.
- High cost of ICT resources such as hardware and software of computers. They are very expensive to buy and maintain.
- Poor electricity supply: there is constant power failure necessitating standby arrangements. Poor electricity supply destroys ICT resources. Effective teaching cannot take place without electricity. Students lag behind without the usage of it to practice with the ICT resources. Hence, it makes teaching and learning processes to be slow.
- Inadequate ICT resources/infrastructural facilities. Most higher institutions in Ogun State do not have the relevant equipment to enable students gain hands or experience such as: studio, laboratories, Dictaphones, scanning machines and internet facilities.
- Insufficient Personnel: Higher institutions in Nigeria, especially in Ogun State lack qualified lecturers in the field of ICT. For instance, courses in business education are full of half-baked or non-specialists in areas like, Shorthand, Business Communication, Business Mathematics, Computer Appreciation
In the light of all the facts enumerated above, this project will be concerned with determining the availability and utilization of Information and Communication Technology resources in Tertiary Institutions of learning in Ogun State.
Statement of the Problem
The UNESCO policy directive for change and development in higher education had set a global standard for maintaining functional quality education in the world. Nations are expected to respond to this by integrating modern technology in their educational delivery. The Federal Government of Nigeria had in response to this call mandated in its national policy on education modern technology in education (FGN 2004). In the same vein, the National Communication Commission through its policy on commission (NCC 2001) requested for the integration of ICT resources into all school curricula.
As a further consequence to government’s resolve, supervisory and regulatory bodies in charge of higher education are expected to comply with this directive. The policy making bodies for business teacher education programme in Nigeria such as National Universities Commission (NUC), National Commission for Colleges of Education (NCCE) and National Board for Technical Education (NBTE) have complied with the directives, presently there are traces of ICT integrated into various programme curricular, including the business teacher education at tertiary institutional level. This is complementing the country’s drive to make this nation a fully ICT complaint.
The implementation of ICT in school curricula requires the acquisition and deployment of ICT infrastructure. These ICT resources are normally capital intensive in initial outlay and maintenance with the absence of a national framework or blue print for collaborative implementation that would stipulate ICT standards expected in institutions, and the somewhat autonomy granted to institutions; this has given room to differences in approach and implementation. Taking note of the technical depth in the curriculum, there is need for enough resources in form of people (lecturers, institutions network, and administrators): hardware, software and network resources. These are presently not available in the institutions.
Also, results of recent studies on skill acquisition related subjects particularly science, technical/vocational subjects show mass failures that many school leavers in Nigeria are unemployed. According to Ogwo (2005), functional vocational education is desired by all and sundry so as to acquire the necessary skills needed for self employment. Jaja (2001) stated that Nigeria is rated the 20th poorest nation in the world due to unemployment despite the fact that she is one of the greatest producers of crude oil and natural gas. In addition, WAEC (2005) indicated that mass failures exist in science and vocational/technological subjects. One wonders weather those employed to teach the school leavers at both secondary and colleges of eduphon levels of education taught them using appropriate instructional tools. Self reliance and ability to genepate job form part of thd vocational skills, which every teacher should acquire for effective, teaching/learning to take place. It is well known fact that people are reluctant to utilize new technologies. People do not easily yield to change, even when such a change will greatly facilitate their activities. This is also applies to lecturers, especially with the slow pace of embracing the ICT resources for improving the quality of teaching and learning.
Since the uses of ICT resources in teaching have many benefits as enumerated in the background and there are mass failures, many unemployed Secondary/Colleges of Education graduates advocate for change and development in higher education institutions, the researcher feels that investigating on the availability and utilization in teaching of Business Education Courses in tertiary Institutions in Ogun State will reveal a lot of facts that may be beneficial in the area of teaching/learning.
Purpose of the Study
The major purpose of this study is to determine the availability and utilization of ICT resources in teaching of Business Education Courses in Tertiary institutions in Ogun State.
Specifically, the study determines:
- The ICT resources available for teaching Business Education Courses in tertiary institutions in Ogun State.
- The level of utilization of these ICT resources in teaching Business Education Courses in Tertiary Institutions in Ogun State.
- The benefit derived by using ICT resources in teaching Business Education Courses in Tertiary Institutions in Ogun State.
- The problems facing the utilization of ICT resources in teaching Business Education Courses in Tertiary Institutions in Ogun State.
Significance of the Study
The study will be of immense benefit to stakeholders in business education such as lecturers, students, parents, curriculum planners, the three levels of government and tertiary institutions management.
The findings of the study will enlighten Business Education Lecturers to different areas where ICT resources are applied as instructional aids for better understanding of concepts by the students. When these future teachers can learn with understanding, they can impart correct knowledge to their would-be students. Learning, which is continuous process, will then continue to grow. Moreover, students will be aware of the benefit that ICT resources can give to them. In terms of pedagogical information that may improve their learning in business education courses. Since the use of ICT resources are found to be effective, students will gain adequate knowledge in the course of training and pedagogical information that may improve their learning in business education courses. Since the use of ICT resources are found to be effective, students will gain adequate knowledge in the course of training. The findings will as well increase the interest of the students in Business Education.
To the parent, this study will enable them to be aware of the necessary ICT resources that are needed for teaching and learning of Business Education Courses in Tertiary Institutions in Ogun State so as to purchase them for their children/wards.
In addition, the Curriculum Planners will know the areas of emphasis while executing their functions. Also on the areas to send lecturers for workshops, seminars for knowledge update as it concerns the ICT resources and the teaching of Business Education Courses.
Moreover, the information gained from the study will be useful to the three levels of governments and philanthropists in that it will benefit them by having the opportunity to be aware of the problems facing the utilization of ICT resources in teaching Business Education Courses in Tertiary Institutions so as to proffer lasting solutions to them. Also, governments will be able to supply more of ICT resources to tertiary institutions for teaching and learning purpose.
Lastly, the findings of this study will be of importance to the tertiary institutions management and administrators so as to know whether there will be improvement in the teaching of business education courses if ICT resources are available and fully utilized according to the stated objectives.
- What are the ICT resources available for teaching Business Education Courses in Tertiary Institutions in Ogun State?
- What is the extent of utilization of each ICT resources for teaching Business Education Courses in Tertiary Institutions in Ogun State?
- What are the benefits derived in using ICT resources in teaching of Business Education Courses in Tertiary Institutions in Ogun State?
- What problems confront the use of ICT resources for teaching Business Education Courses in Tertiary Institutions in Ogun State?
The following null-hypotheses will be tested at 0.05 level of significance
H01: There is no significant difference in the Mean ratings of male and female
business education lecturers on the level of utilization of ICT resources in teaching business education courses in tertiary institutions in Ogun State.
H02: There is no significant difference in the Mean ratings of male and female
business education lecturers on the contributions of information and communication technology resources to the teaching business education courses in tertiary institutions in Ogun State
H03: There is no significant difference in the Mean ratings of