The chapter three of your project contain the research Methodology, There should be a brief information of what the chapter contains in a paragraph. The most important question you should ask yourself at the time of writing your Methodology is; if the method am using will give me the information needed to solve the problem or answer to my research problem?. In this post, I will discuss on research Methodology .
This topic is a subheading of Project format–comprehensive guild on what project should contain. Below are topics we’ve discussed so far:
- The preliminary pages, we gave insight on what the page should contain,
- Abstract project writing – insight on how to begin your abstract and
- Table of content in project writing – insight on how to begin.
- chapter one in project writing – insight on how to begin the introduction.
- chapter two project writing – insight on how to begin your literature review.
The research methodology contain the following, study design, study area, study population, sample and size techniques, sample size, sampling technique, instrument of data collection, reliability and validity of the instrument, method of data collection, data analysis and management, ethical consideration.
Study design – This is the structure which specifies the design used in the study. It could be descriptive, cross sectional type of study.
Study area – This is a brief history or description of the area of study.
Study population – A description of the target respondents under investigation.
Sample size – This is the number of respondents selected from the target population under investigation. The sample size should be between 120 to 150.
Sampling techniques – Sampling techniques is the method adopted in selecting the respondents used in the study. Such method could be simple random, stratified random etc.
Instrument of data collection – This is describing the tool for collecting the data e.g. questionnaires, observation, interview, checklist etc. For questionnaires, the sections contained should be indicated.
Reliability and validity of the instrument – This means the consistency with which the instrument measures what it is supposed or purports to measure. This can be determined by using any of the following methods, depending on the research e.g. pre test, the parallel and alternative reliability test etc. while validity ensures that the instruments used actually perform. E.g. Content validity and Face validity.
Method of data collection – An explanation of the steps taken to collect the relevant data and retrieval of questionnaires.
Data analysis and management – Here, the researcher describes the statistical techniques or tools employed in analyzing the data, which may include tabulation, graph, charts, Statistic (Mean, T-test, F-test, Chi-square etc).
Ethical consideration. – These are the steps taken by the researcher to ensure privacy, confidentiality and non maleficience (no harm) to the respondents during data collection. It should be added at the discretion of the supervisor.
EXAMPLE OF METHODOLOGY IN ATTITUDE OF MOTHERS ATTENDING ANTENATAL CLINICS AT GENERAL HOSPITALS IN ANAMBRA STATE TOWARDS CESAREAN DELIVERY
This chapter is concerned with the research design, area of the study, population for the study, the sample and sampling technique, the instrument for data collection, validity and reliability of the instrument, method of data collection and data analysis.
The cross-sectional survey research design was used for the study. According to Levin (2006), cross sectional survey design when simply put, provides a snapshot of a situation in a population, and the characteristics associated with it at a specific point in time. This study also involved the collection, analysis and interpretation of data which Osuala (1987) described that is better done by cross-sectional survey research design. This design was successfully used by Jeremiah, Enyidah and Fiebai (2011) to assess the attitude of antenatal patients at a tertiary health institution in Southern Nigeria towards cesarean section. The design was considered appropriate for the study because the information were collected directly from the respondents.
Area of the Study
The location of this study was Anambra State. Anambra is a State in South-Eastern Nigeria created on 27th august 1991 with its capital and the Seat of Government at Awka. Its boundaries are formed by Delta State to the West, Imo and Rivers State to the South, Enugu State to the East and Kogi State to the North. There are 21 Local Government Areas in the State. .Igboegbunam (2009) noted that the indigenous ethnic group in Anambra State are the Igbos (98% of the population) and a small population of Igala (2% of the population) who live in the North Western part of the State
The people of Anambra State are known for their hard work and resourcefulness. Traditionally farmers, today a significant number of them have become traders as well as academicians. The people are predominantly Igbos with strong attachment to tradition. Though highly Christianized and civilized, the people attach great importance to certain practices which have severe and phenomenal affects on them especially women who may not be allowed to take decision alone regarding mode of delivery. Some of such practices are polygamous marriage, early marriage, male dominance among couples, lack of qualitative education for women, extended family system, sex preference and belief system. The practices were deemed capable of influencing the attitude of the women to cesarean delivery because often times, the women do not take decisions on their own and most of them are financially dependent on their spouse and family members. The attitude of their women towards cesarean delivery appeared to be dependent on the attitude of significant others, religious and cultural beliefs which may see cesarean delivery as an abnormal means of delivery.
There are 20 general hospitals in Anambra state located at Onitsha, Awka, Ekwulobia, Enugu-ukwu, Nimo, Agulu, Ogidi, Ukpor and Oraifite. Others are at Nnokwa, Nnobi, Mbaukwu, Umuleri, Orumba, Ossomala, Okija, Ichi, Ifitedunu, Agulu-Uzoigbo and Umuchu (see appendix A pg 76) .
Population for the Study
Thepopulation for the study consisted of all the mothers registered for antenatal clinics at all the general hospitals in Anambra State. This was estimated at 3258 mothers (Government of Anambra State Hospitals Management Board, 2010). (See Appendix A, page 76). The general hospital was chosen because it is widely spread in the State, as such, accessible to all the pregnant women in the State.
Sample and Sampling Techniques
The sample for the study consisted of 326 mothers representing 10 per cent of the mothers attending antenatal clinics in all the general hospitals in the State. This was in line with Nwana’s (1981) in Ejifugha (1998) rule of thumb which states that when the population of study is few hundreds, the sample study should be 40 per cent. If they are many hundred, 20 per cent of the population should be the sample size. When they are few thousands, 10 per cent of the population will do and if several thousands, 5 per cent of the population will be considered representative.
A two stage sampling procedure was employed to draw the sample for the study. In the first stage, the simple random sampling technique of balloting without replacement was used to select ten general hospitals from the twenty general hospitals in the State which is believed to be a representative of the population. The second stage involved the use of systematic random sampling technique to draw 33 respondents from six hospital and 32 respondents from the remaining four hospitals using the mothers that are available on the day of visit. On the completion of these sampling procedures, three hundred and twenty six (326) mothers were selected and utilized for the study.
Instrument for Data Collection
The instrument for data collection was the questionnaire which was called Attitude Towards Cesarean Delivery (ATCD) questionnaire (Appendix D, page 78-79). It was developed by the researcher to elicit information on the attitude of the pregnant mothers in Anambra State general hospitals towards C-delivery.
The questionnaire consisted of two sections. Section A contained information regarding the demographic characteristics of the respondents. Section B contained 15 items arranged in a four point scale aimed at finding out the attitude of mothers towards C- delivery. It consisted of both positive and negative statements to which the respondents were expected to indicate their degree of agreement and degree of disagreement as follows: strongly agree (SA), agree (A), disagree (D) and strongly disagree (SD), with assigned values of 4, 3, 2, and 1 for positive items and 1, 2, 3 and 4 for negative items, respectively.
Validity of the instrument.
The face validity of the research instrument was established by giving the instrument, the specific purposes, research questions and hypotheses of the study to five experts in the Health and Physical Education Department, University of Nigeria, Nsukka. Their main task was to critically, examine the questionnaire assessing the language, grammar and coverage of the items viz-a-viz the specific purposes.
The experts checked the appropriateness of each item in terms of the language used as well as the suitability of the questionnaire items for inclusion in the instrument and make corrections as they deem fit. They also advised that positive statements should equate the negative statements and the questionnaire items in all the three dimensions should be of equal number. Their constructive criticisms, advice and suggestions were used to modify the instrument that was used for data collection.
Reliability of the instrument.
The reliability co-efficient were established using the test-retest method. Copies of the questionnaire was administered on twenty pregnant women comprising ten women from urban area and ten women from rural area in two general hospitals in Enugu State. Copies of the questionnaire were re-administered on the same women after two weeks. The scores that were obtained from the two tests were correlated using spearman-correlation co-efficient formula in order to find out their reliability.
Ogbazi and Okpala (1994) explained that in a reliability test, if the correlation co-efficient index obtained is up to .60 and above, that instrument is considered reliable. Following from this, the reliability index of the questionnaire (ATCDQ) obtained was .94 and therefore considered reliable for the achievement of the objectives of the study (see Appendix D Pg 80-81).
Method of Data Collection
A letter of introduction duly signed by the head of Department of Health and Physical Education, University of Nigeria, Nsukka seeking permission to carry out the research on attitude of the mothers attending antenatal clinics at the general hospitals in Anambra state towards cesarean delivery was presented to the head of antenatal clinics in the ten general hospitals selected for the study. Copies of the questionnaire were administered to the respondents in each general hospital by the researcher and research assistants who were briefed on the modalities of administration. Three hundred and twenty six copies of the questionnaire were distributed, and three hundred and twenty five were returned representing 99.7 per cent return rate. All the returned copies were filled correctly and therefore used for the study.
Method of Data Analysis
Three hundred and twenty six copies of the questionnaire were distributed, and three hundred and twenty five were returned. Copies of the questionnaire returned were cross checked for completeness of the responses. All the copies returned were duly completed and were used for the study. The data was analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social science (SPSS) batch system. The four point attitude measurement scale was used to answer the research questions. For each positive statement, a score of four (4) was assigned to ‘Strongly Agree’ (SA), three (3) to ‘Agree’ (A), two (2) to ‘Disagree’ (D) and one (1) to ‘Strongly Disagree’ (SD). In the case of negative statements, the reverse was the case; one (1) point was assigned to ‘Strongly Agree’ (SA), two (2) to ‘Agree’ three (3) to ‘Disagree’ (D) and four (4) to ‘Strongly Disagree’ (SD). In other words, the higher the aggregate scores in the scale, the more positive the attitude of the respondents to C- delivery was adjudged.
The research questions on the attitude towards C-delivery among mothers were answered using criterion mean of 2.5. The criterion mean was obtained thus; 4+3+2+1 = 10/4 = 2.5. Where the mean score was equal to or greater than the criterion mean, it were concluded that the women’s attitude was positive to the subject matter, where the mean score was less than the criterion mean value, it was concluded that the women’s attitude was negative.
Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to test all the hypotheses. All the hypotheses were tested at .05 level of significance at the appropriate degrees of freedom.