literature Review should be brief information of what the chapter contains in a paragraph Citation of past relevant works covering the variables of the problem. This is meant to be a review and not a reproduction of past work of scholars in the related fields.
- preliminary pages and what the page should contain.
- Abstract project writing – insight on how to begin your abstract
- Table of content in project writing – insight on how to begin.
- chapter one in project writing – insight on how to begin the introduction.
METHOD OF CITATION
You are expected to use American Psychological Association Format (APA Format)
E.g (i) Abbeleggen (2015) stressed a deeper level of commitment to firm culturally …
(ii) One of the factors cited as cause of Japan’s relatively low rate of labour turnover is status enhancement variable (Marsh & Mannari, 2011).
(iii) Marsh and Mannari (2011) cited status enhancement variable as one of the factors that cause Japan’s relatively low rate of labour turnover.
EXAMPLE OF LITERATURE REVIEW ON THE USE OF PLAY AS LEARNING STRATEGY FOR SKILLS DEVELOPMENT IN EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION
The sub-headings of the literature review for this study includes:
- A review of the concept of play
- The role of play in early childhood education
- The social, emotional and intellectual benefits of play
- Integrating play and learning in Early Childhood Education
- The role of the adult in the play-oriented classroom
- Fostering healthy play in the Early Childhood Classroom
A review of the concept of play
Play is a spontaneous, voluntary, pleasurable and flexible activity involving a combination of body, object, symbol use and relationships (Chi, 2009). Chi contrasted games with play, explaining that play behaviour is more disorganized, and is typically done for its own sake (i.e., the process is more important than any goals or end points).
The review of Deci & Ryan (2000), concurred with that of Chi, (2009)when he described play as an activity done for its own sake, characterized by means rather than ends , flexibility , and positive affect (children often smile, laugh, and say they enjoy it). These criteria contrast play with exploration (focused investigation as a child gets more familiar with a new toy or environment, that may then lead into play), work (which has a definite goal), and games (more organized activities in which there is some goal, typically winning the game). Recognized as a universal phenomenon, Deci & Ryan (2000) herald play as a legitimate right of childhood and should be part of all children’s life. Research shows that between 3% to 20% of young children’s time and energy is spent in play, and more so in non-impoverished environment (Deci & Ryan, 2000). Although play is an important arena in children’s life associated with immediate, short-term and long-term term benefits, cultural factors influence children’s opportunities for free play in different ways (Gray, 2013). Gray disclosed that , over the last decade, there has been on-going reduction of playtime in favour of educational instructions, especially in modern and urban societies. Furthermore, the researcher pointed out parental concerns about safety as a factor which sometimes limit children’s opportunities to engage in playful and creative activities. Along the same lines, Gopnik, Meltzoff & Kuhl (1999) indicated the increase of commercial toys and technological developments by the toy industry has as a factor that has fostered more sedentary and less healthy play behaviours in children. Yet, play is essential to young children’s education and should not be abruptly minimized and segregated from learning. Not only play helps children develop pre-literacy skills, problem solving skills and concentration Hargrave & Sénéchal (2000) but it also generates social learning experiences, and helps children to express possible stresses and problems……………………..