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CULTURAL FACTORS AFFECTING WORKERS PRODUCTIVITY IN NIGERIA

10,000 3,000

(A CASE STUDY OF GOVERNMENT PARASTATALS IN ENUGU STATE)

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CHAPTER ONE

                                      INTRODUCTION

1.1    BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

All organizational have certain resources, which they utilize to achieve the organizational objectives. In modern times, these resources are money, man, materials and machine. Akpala (1999:2). He stresses the need for the combination and utilization of these resources for attaining organizational goals. These goals are about getting an organization into division of labour, assigning work to different people, creation of hierarchy and establishment of power centers. All these are being performed through and with individuals in an ever changing organizational environment. So manager have to adjust their managerial operations in the context of environmental factors just as the exchange between the organization and the factors of its environment can bring about and influence the organization, Hampton (1992:120.

One of environmental factor that concerns this study in a way is culture and its influence on organization performance. Trewartha and Newport (1995:162) gave the

meaning of culture from the anthropological and sociological standpoint saying that it referred to the belief, behaviour, norms, and values within a given society. It refers to learned behavioural traits shared by members of a given society. Ugbaja (1999:142). It is stepped in tradition and heritage. But looking at culture from organization and management point of view, it is the tradition and heritage that influence the pattern of combining and utilizing the resources of an organization. Nwatu (1999:15).

Culture also influence attitude of people towards work, the character of organization objectives, authority relationships, styles of leadership, the extent of the use of controls and the way employees are rewarded. This assertion seems to the supported by past studies. On the basis of a 6 years empirical study of 34 firms, Pascal (1997:125) report that managerial or management systems are not absolute, rather they are socially and culturally determined. Pascal maintains that across, all cultures and in all societies people when coming together to perform work encounter common problems, having to do with established direction, co-ordination and motivation.

 

The values and belief of an organization are a manifestation of the kind of good that its members should strive to meet, as well as ideas about the standard of behaviour members should utilize in achieving these goals. From these organizational values, management will develop guidelines and expectations, prescribing the kind of behaviour deemed appropriate for employees to demonstrate in particular situations, thus guiding and controlling the interaction  of all members of the organization. The effects of this will be to given an overall corporate “feel” the internal and external interactions. It is widely acknowledged that organizational culture has an impact upon company performance.

Accordance to Joanna Martin (1992) the objective of studying organizational life more. One of the eminent themes that is often discussed and debated in the management and business literature is the influence of corporate culture on organizational performance.

Corporate culture is a management philosophy and a way of managing on organization in improving the effectiveness and efficiency of its performance (Kotler and Heskett, 2006).

Understanding of the importance of corporate culture is evident when most organizations acknowledge the fact that an organization’s knowledge the fact that an organization’s well founded culture could contribute to the achievement in every aspect of performance whether in growth, finance and economy. It is against this background that this study is set organizational performance.

1.2    STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

As culture can be seen as a pattern or collection of traditions, values, beliefs, policies and attitudes that constitute a pervasive context for everything one does and thinks in an organization. Therefore cultural factors have drastic influence on how organizations are being run, which must be effective but inefficient. These cultural factors might conflict with one another because people with different cultural background come together to pursuit a common goal.

Nevertheless some of the organizational leaders lack the ability to analyse and evaluate these cultural factors, thus, this result into low commitment among worker, lack of job satisfaction, low productivity, dysfunction of norm and values,

and vision fail. Therefore the study seek to investigate the cultural factors affecting workers productivity in Nigeria.

1.3    OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The objectives of his research include the following:

1.To identify how organizational culture influences organizational performance.

2.To identify how organizational culture affect management decision making.

3.To identify how organizational culture influence employees behaviour.

 

1.4    RESEARCH QUESTIONS

1.To what extent does organizational culture affects organization performances?

2.To what extent does organizational culture affects management decision making?

3.To what extent does organizational culture influence employee’s behaviour?

4.To what extent does culture helps employee, to adapt to organizational internal environment.

1.5    RESEARCH HYPOTHESES

The null hypotheses are:

Ho1:Organizational culture does not affect organization performance.

Ho2:Organizational culture does not influence management decision making.

Ho3:Organizational culture doe not influence employees behaviour.

 

1.6    SCOPE OF THE STUDY

This study shall show the effect of culture in organizational performance as it relates to management of Nigeria Bottling Company (NBC) “coca-cola” Nevertheless the research will be limited to the study of NBC 9th Mile Corner Enugu, within 2007 to 2011.

 

1.7    LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY

This research would have covered a larger geographical area and shape but some circumstances would not warrant an exhaustive investigation about this study. Some of them are:

 

i)Financial Constraint

Because of the poor economic situation in the country, money lost its value and lost its purchasing power. As such the income of the researcher which is low could not go higher than normal in carrying out this research. Purchasing of books, browsing the internet requires money and was not at the disposal of the researcher to expand the research beyond this stage.

ii)Time Constraint

“Time and tide waits for no man” the research was carried out amidst other assignments and examinations that students normally and usually have. So, it took a little time (lapse of time) between writing the project, reading and attending lectures, writing the assignment, and studying for final exams.

iii)Dearth/Paucity of Information

Obtaining or gaining information is on itself a difficult encounter, managers of coca-cola failed to offer concrete information for tear of selling their age long established strategies.The interact also did not offer any important information. This really expanded much of the

 

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