design and construction of an Automatic Voltage Regulator ( chapter 1-5)
This project is titled the design and construction of an Automatic Voltage Regulator. It is designed to meet up with AC voltage safety, stability and accuracy demand in industries and in homes. An Automatic Voltage Regulator is designed to automatically maintain a constant AC voltage level. This work is a step by step approach to the construction of a type of voltage regulator of known output voltage is draft within this project work. A power regulator is described in the course of this work unlike a linear power supply the transistor of a switch mode supply maintains the desire output voltage by dissipating capacitance multiplier supplies amplifiers which are extremely low ripples power supply with much less power dissipation than a regulator. The output is maintained by the 3-terminals regulators but the current flow through the pass “pass transistors” which is power transistors, in this circuit, the transistor act like a switch. For any power regulation circuit to work, it needs a reference. TR2 is a PNP power transistor. The input is a 240V, 50Hz which supply current line voltage in the range of 100-200 watt.
An Automatic Voltage Regulator is a process of converting the alternating Voltage into a steady voltage. The device that is used to perform this process is known as an automatic voltage regulator. An automatic voltage regulator is electronic equipment that is used and designed to maintain the constant voltage level. These devices prevent malfunctioning and damaging of the electrical appliances .Automatic voltage regulator uses electromechanical and electronic components of various types and designs. Automatic voltage regulator may include negative feedback control loops. The feedback voltage regulator operates by making comparison between the output voltage and the input voltage. Electromechanical mechanism or electronic components are used in automatic voltage regulation. It can be used to regulate one or more AC (Alternating Current) to DC (Direct Current).
Electronic Voltage Regulators are used in Devices such as computer for power supplies where they stabilize the AC (alternating current) voltage used by the processor and other elements. In automobile alternator as central power station generator plants, voltage regulators control the output of the plant. In an electric power distribution system, voltage regulators may be installed as a substation or along distribution lines so that all customers receive steady voltage independent of how much power is draw from the line.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
According to Bardan and Battam (1948) a transistor is the first semiconductor that is used to regulate the current. They made their discoveries when they were investigating the surface