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A CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF TRANSIENT STABILITY OF ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEM A CASE STUDY OF NIGERIAN 330KV POWER SYSTEM

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Topic Description

                                        INTRODUCTION

1.1  PREAMBLE

Electrical energy is an essential ingredient for the industrial and all-round development of any country. The quality of life in any country is highly dependent on a reliable electricity supply. The frequent system collapses in the Nigerian power sector have severally thrown or plunged the nation into darkness due to system instability in the Nigeria electric power system. The epileptic nature of the supply has led to low economic growth and dissatisfaction among the citizenry. To assist in overcoming the instability problems, analysis of the Nigerian electric power system transient stability is carried out employing Newton-Raphson method of load flow solution and fourth order Runge Kutta method in mat-lab software package environment [1, 2,  3].

The objective of any electrical power system is to generate electric energy in sufficient quantities at most suitable locality, transmit it in bulk quantities to the load centre, which is then distributed to the individual consumers. In carrying out the desired objectives, the electric power system is faced with unforeseen circumstances such as faults. Under this condition, the system voltage collapses resulting in a dangerous high current. This causes instability within the system which can result in system breakdown if adequate care is not taken [4, 5].

In order to avoid these undesirable situations, it becomes necessary to, before hand; predict with a very good accuracy, the extent of voltage, current and power distribution within the system at anytime so as to know the protective devices to be incorporated to handle the abnormal conditions. Hence under these dangerous situations, the transformers, lines, generators, cables, bus-bars etc. need to be protected [2, 6, and 7].

The transient stability analysis which is the main concern of this work, deals with the state of the synchronous machine during a fault in the system. It gives the state and position of the load.  The digital computer is an indispensable tool for power system analysis, computational algorithms for various system studies such as load flow, fault-level analysis, stability studies etc. It gives an acceptable working accuracy to the ever widening complex power system of modern times [8, 9].

 

  • THE OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY.

These include the  following:

i  To determine the critical clearing angle and time of the Nigerian  330KV protection system.

ii To determine the behavior of the Nigerian power system during     large  scale disturbance and make necessary recommendations.

iii To specify the circuit break speeds in the system

iv To determine the available transfer capability (ATC) of the Nigerian  330KV grid system during fault and make recommendation  for   improvement such that the system is   transiently stable.

1.3     SCOPE OF STUDY

The dissertation work covers the Nigerian 330KV power system.  All the thirty-four (34) buses in the network are critically examined and analyzed with  regard to  transient stability .

1.4     Methodology

In this work, the composition of the Nigerian 330KV Electric power  system (the national grid) is looked into and the critical clearing time and angle evaluated and determined using fourth (4th) order Runge Kutta method after obtaining power flow solution results with If newton power flow  program(Newton-Raphson Method) and other   programs such as Lfybus, Busout, Trstab, Afpek, Dfpek, Ybusaf,    Ybusbf and Ybusdf in Matlab software package environment such that  the probability of total system collapse is reduced to the barest   minimum.Power holding company Plc. 330KV  electrical network single Line  diagram is used for this study. The generators,transmission lines and transformer parameters are taken from the most up-to-date data from National control centre, Oshogbo System Planning unit and system operations department. The subtransient reactance X11 of the synchronous machines is used to give maximum fault levels at the instant of fault.

The  MATLAB  function  ode 23  will be employed  to  solve  the   2m first  order   swing equation to give the desired  result.

The performance of protective system during transient period will be Evaluated.   Heavy Egbin – Ikeja West 330KV line will be faulted And be removed and the system critical clearing time and angle determined such that the  Nigerian power system is transiently stable thereby averting  widespread black-out.

                                        INTRODUCTION

1.1  PREAMBLE

Electrical energy is an essential ingredient for the industrial and all-round development of any country. The quality of life in any country is highly dependent on a reliable electricity supply. The frequent system collapses in the Nigerian power sector have severally thrown or plunged the nation into darkness due to system instability in the Nigeria electric power system. The epileptic nature of the supply has led to low economic growth and dissatisfaction among the citizenry. To assist in overcoming the instability problems, analysis of the Nigerian electric power system transient stability is carried out employing Newton-Raphson method of load flow solution and fourth order Runge Kutta method in mat-lab software package environment [1, 2,  3].

The objective of any electrical power system is to generate electric energy in sufficient quantities at most suitable locality, transmit it in bulk quantities to the load centre, which is then distributed to the individual consumers. In carrying out the desired objectives, the electric power system is faced with unforeseen circumstances such as faults. Under this condition, the system voltage collapses resulting in a dangerous high current. This causes instability within the system which can result in system breakdown if adequate care is not taken [4, 5].

In order to avoid these undesirable situations, it becomes necessary to, before hand; predict with a very good accuracy, the extent of voltage, current and power distribution within the system at anytime so as to know the protective devices to be incorporated to handle the abnormal conditions. Hence under these dangerous situations, the transformers, lines, generators, cables, bus-bars etc. need to be protected [2, 6, and 7].

The transient stability analysis which is the main concern of this work, deals with the state of the synchronous machine during a fault in the system. It gives the state and position of the load.  The digital computer is an indispensable tool for power system analysis, computational algorithms for various system studies such as load flow, fault-level analysis, stability studies etc. It gives an acceptable working accuracy to the ever widening complex power system of modern times [8, 9].

 

  • THE OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY.

These include the  following:

i  To determine the critical clearing angle and time of the Nigerian

330KV protection system.

ii To determine the behavior of the Nigerian power system during

large  scale disturbance and make necessary recommendations.

iii To specify the circuit break speeds in the system

iv To determine the available transfer capability (ATC) of the

Nigerian  330KV grid system during fault and make

recommendation  for   improvement such that the system is

transiently stable.

1.3     SCOPE OF STUDY

The dissertation work covers the Nigerian 330KV power system.  All the thirty-four (34) buses in the network are critically examined and analyzed with  regard to  transient stability .

1.4     Methodology

In this work, the composition of the Nigerian 330KV Electric power

system (the national grid) is looked into and the critical clearing time

and angle evaluated and determined using fourth (4th) order Runge

Kutta method after obtaining power flow solution results with

Ifnewton power flow  program(Newton-Raphson Method) and other

programs such as Lfybus, Busout, Trstab, Afpek, Dfpek, Ybusaf,

Ybusbf and Ybusdf in Matlab software package environment such that

the probability of total system collapse is reduced to the barest

minimum.

Power holding company Plc. 330KV  electrical network

single Line  diagram is used for this study. The generators,

transmission lines and transformer parameters are taken from the most

up-to-date data from National control centre, Oshogbo System

Planning unit and system operations department. The subtransient

reactance X11 of the synchronous machines is used to give maximum

fault levels at the instant of fault.

The  MATLAB  function  ode 23  will be employed  to  solve  the   2m

first  order   swing equation to give the desired  result.

The performance of protective system during transient period will be

Evaluated.   Heavy Egbin – Ikeja West 330KV line will be faulted

And be removed and the system critical clearing time and angle

determined such that the  Nigerian power system is transiently stable

thereby averting  widespread black-out.

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