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ANTIMALARIAL AND ANTIOXIDANT EFFECTS OF METHANOL AND FLAVONOID-RICH EXTRACTS OF Adansonia digitata STEM BARK ON Plasmodium berghei-INFECTED MICE

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94 pages | chapter 1-5

Topic Description

ABSTRACT
Adansonia digitata has popular ethnomedicinal application in the treatment of malaria in sub-Saharan Africa. The present study sought to investigate the antimalarial and antioxidant effects of m the evaluated concentrations significantly (P<0.001) reversed the elevated hepatic membrane peroxidation caused by P. berghei infection but produced no significant effect on GSH when compared with the infected, untreated mice.
The results of the present study revealed the antioxidant and prophylactic effects of methanol and flavonoid-rich extracts of A. digitata on P. berghei-induced malaria in mice. It can thus be concluded that the plant could be harnessed as source of antimalarial agents and further justifies the folkloric use of the plant in the treatment of malaria.ethanol and flavonoid-rich extracts of the stem bark on Plasmodium berghei-infected mice in vivo. Thirty-five male mice, weighing 18-20 g and randomly allocated into seven groups of five animals each were used. Group 1, which served as the positive control, was pretreated
with 1 ml/kg of the vehicle (5% v/v tween 80), mice in groups 2 and 3 were pretreated with 5 mg/kg b.wt of the standard drugs: chloroquine and arthemter/lumfantrine respectively, groups 4 and 5 were pretreated with 200mg/kg and 400 mg/kg methanol extract of A. digitata (ADME) respectively while groups 6 and 7 were administered 200mg/kg and 400 mg/kg flavonoid-rich extract of A. digitata (ADFE)respectively. Drugs were administered by oral gavage once daily for five consecutive days before intraperitonial transfection of mice with an inoculum size of 1x 107of P.berghei. Blood was withdrawn from animals for the quantification of packed cell volume (PCV) and parasitemia. Animals were anaesthetized with ether 72 h after transfection, dissected and the livers quickly excised to prepare the homogenate used to evaluate the extent of membrane lipid peroxidation and level of reduced glutathione (GSH). ADME and ADFE treatment caused significant (P<0.001), dose-dependent  chemosuppresive activity and decreased parasitemia when compared with the infected, untreated mice. Higher effective doses (400 mg/kg b.wt) of ADME and ADFE produced 68% and 82% clearance of the parasites at day 5 after transfection compared with 100% clearance by both standard drugs (chloroquine and arthemter/lumfantrine) at 5 mg/kg b.wt dosage. ADME and ADFE at 400 mg/kg b.wt also reversed the malaria-dependent reduction in the PCV to preinfection level and compared well with the reference drugs in this regard. ADME and ADFE at the evaluated concentrations significantly (P<0.001) reversed the elevated hepatic membrane peroxidation caused by P. berghei infection but produced no significant effect on GSH when compared with the infected, untreated mice.

The results of the present study revealed the antioxidant and prophylactic effects of methanol and flavonoid-rich extracts of A. digitata on P. berghei-induced malaria in mice. It can thus be concluded that the plant could be harnessed as source of antimalarial agents and further justifies the folkloric use of the plant in the treatment of malaria.

CHAPTER ONE
1.0 INTRODUCTION
Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease of humans and other animals. It is a lifethreatening
blood disease caused by a Plasmodium parasite. The disease is transmitted most commonly by an infected female Anopheles mosquito. The mosquito bite introduces the parasites from the mosquito’s saliva into a person’s blood (WHO, 2014). The parasites travel to the liver where they mature and reproduce. Five species of Plasmodium can infect and be spread by humans. Most deaths are caused by P. falciparum because P. vivax, P. ovale, and P. malariae generally cause a milder form of malaria.

The species P. knowlesi rarely causes disease in humans (Caraballo, 2014; WHO, 2014). Malaria is the most important parasitic disease of man. This disease is presently endemic and it is a major threat to public health in various parts of the world, around the equator and areas such as parts of Asia, Latin America, Middle East, Eastern Europe, Pacific and much of Africa. It is largely prevalent in these places and specifically accounts for 85-90% of fatalities in the Sub Saharan Africa (Layne, 2007). The prevalence of malaria in the tropical and subtropical regions have been attributed to rainfall, consistent high temperatures and high humidity as well as the presence of stagnant waters in which mosquito larvae readily mature, thus providing a favourable environment for the continuous breeding of this vector (Jamieson et al., 2006).
This disease is reasonably easy to recognize especially in patients with little or no previous case(s) of malaria. The common symptoms include headache, fever, shivering, joint pain, vomiting, hemolytic anemia, and jaundice, hemoglobin in the urine, convulsions and retinal damage (Beare et al., 2006).

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