Background of the Study
Entrepreneurship is a necessary ingredient for encouraging economic growth and employment opportunities in every society. Entrepreneurship is a way of seeking investment opportunities, job creation and business establishments. It helps in creating jobs for those who could not secure white-collar jobs. In Nigeria, entrepreneurship practices are to serve as engines of job creation, income growth and poverty reduction. The knowledge of entrepreneurship promotes entrepreneurship activities which in turn stimulate economic growth and well-being of the people in society.
Entrepreneurship is the process by which one becomes aware of business ownership as an option for viable alternative to develop ideas for business, learn the process of becoming entrepreneur and take the initiative in the development of businesses (Ikeme 2012). Chukwurah (2011) observed that entrepreneurship is all about job and wealth creation; it deals principally with needs identification and taking steps to bridge existing gaps by providing solutions to those identified needs. Chukwurah shared a similar view with Onu (2006) who stated that entrepreneurship is the acquisition of skills, ideas and other related variables for the sake of creating employment for self and others. European Commission (2007) described entrepreneurship as an individual’s ability to turn ideas into actions that will produce positive result for economic wellbeing.
Entrepreneurship, according to the researcher, is the process of developing, managing and financing a business venture, taking risk in the right direction at the
owner’s profit and for the development of society. For one to be successful in life as an entrepreneur, the person will need to have the knowledge of entrepreneurship.
An entrepreneur is someone who actually searches for change, responds to it, and exploits change as an opportunity (Drucker 2005). Drucker shared similar view with Anaemena (2000) who described entrepreneurs as people who create a special situation to gain profit and growth by determining and seizing opportunities through resource preparation with simple ideas and also preparing needed resources to execute the idea through a suitable business. An entrepreneur is a person who is self-employed, establishes a business venture, finances it, takes risk and manages it at a profit. Every aspiring entrepreneur should be trained to have entrepreneurial attitude.
Entrepreneurial attitude is dedication to duty and willingness to accept positive as well as negative results of business ventures, and learners need to acquire these skills and competences (Akudolu 2001). Entrepreneurial competency refers to the sum of the entrepreneur’s requisite attributes for successful and sustainable entrepreneurship; these attributes include attitudes, values, beliefs, knowledge, skills, abilities, personality, wisdom, expertise (social, technical, and managerial), mindset, and behavioral tendencies (Kiggundy 2002). It implies that inadequate implementation of entrepreneurship curriculum in Federal College of Education (Technical) (FCET) will make the students not to acquire the required attributes for self-employment.
Someone who is self-employed is the owner of a business, an individual who earns a living by working for self and not as an employee of someone else (Murray 2014). Self-employment, according to the researcher, is a panacea to the problem of unemployment in Nigeria; it is the process of earning a living by working for self and not depending on other people or the government. It was against this backdrop that the Federal government introduced entrepreneurship in the year (2007) into the curriculum of colleges of education in Nigeria through National Commission for Colleges of Education (NCCE) with the objective of equipping colleges of education students in Nigeria with the entrepreneurial skills, attitudes, competencies for self-employment (Akhuemonkhan, Raimi and Sofoluwe, 2013 ).
The objectives of entrepreneurship according to NCCE (2012) are to equip college of education students with entrepreneurial skills, attitudes and competencies for self-employment, and this can be achieved through entrepreneurship education.
Entrepreneurship education is the process of developing the requisite entrepreneurial skills, attitudes, competencies, and disposition which will predispose the individual towards being a driving force in developing and managing a business which will help in achieving the entrepreneurship education objectives (Emeraton 2008). Entrepreneurship education objectives outlined by Adah (2008) are: to provide meaningful education to the youths for self-employment and self-reliance, provide graduates with enough skills that will make them creative and innovative in identifying new business opportunities, equip graduates with enough training in risk management, give young graduates training to establish a career in small and medium-scale businesses, provide graduates with training in skills that will enable them to meet the societal manpower needs and reduce the problem of graduate unemployment.
One of the reasons for entrepreneurship education, according to Agu (2006), is to change the orientation and attitude of the recipients and to equip them with the skills and knowledge that will enable them to start up and manage their own business. Similarly, Oduwaiye (2005) described the need for entrepreneurship education in Nigerian tertiary institutions to the dwindling ratio of the availability of white-collar jobs (popularly called “Office Work”). The availability of white-collar jobs compared to the massive turnout of graduates from higher institutions as well as the National Youth Service Corps (NYSC), shows a negative ratio. The available jobs cannot meet the needs of the over one hundred tertiary institutions in Nigeria (Federal, State and Private universities, polytechnics, and colleges of education). Therefore, it is important for colleges of education to expose all their students to entrepreneurship education to enable the students to acquire the entrepreneurial skills and competencies for self-employment.
According to the present researcher, entrepreneurship education is a goal-oriented programme which aims at equipping the students with entrepreneurship knowledge, skills, attitudes and competencies for self-employment. The realization of the NCCE entrepreneurship goals will depend greatly on the implementation of the entrepreneurship curriculum in the colleges of education in Nigeria
Entrepreneurship curriculum is concerned with the goals and objectives of instruction, the content, and evaluation (NCCE 2012). Entrepreneurship curriculum contents, according to NCCE (2012), include introduction to entrepreneurship, practice of entrepreneurship, entrepreneurship skills, small and medium scale enterprises, feasibility study and business plan, risks in business and risk management, investment education and wealth creation strategies, e-marketing and other marketing strategies, business windows, funding institutions in Nigeria, documentation, regulatory and supervision laws for small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in Nigeria, among many others.
There is no doubt that the effective implementation of the entrepreneurship curriculum content will help learners in Nigerian tertiary institutions to develop entrepreneurial capacities and abilities for self-employment (Akudolu 2010). This means that the problem is in the implementation of the entrepreneurship curriculum. Entrepreneurship curriculum according to the researcher comprises the intended learning experiences, the content, and all that the learners are to cover geared towards achieving the entrepreneurship objectives.
The objectives of entrepreneurship curriculum according to NCCE (2012) include: to produce graduates who will professionally combine ideas with innovation in developing a reliable entrepreneurship business; identify major problems in society, and be able to proffer solutions to address the problems both socially and economically; empower students with entrepreneurial skills for self-employment; produce graduates who will see entrepreneurship as an option for economic survival; and broaden their intellectual perspective through the knowledge of entrepreneurship skills for economic development; enhance the study of entrepreneurship to promote professional competence; and encourage the use of computer so as to be functional in the contemporary (ICT) world.
Objectives of entrepreneurship curriculum stated by Oyelola (2013) include: building an enterprising culture in the wider community through engagement with key stakeholders including businesses and non-governmental organizations (NGOs), and developing enterprising attitudes and skills through learning. The achievement of the entrepreneurship curriculum objectives above will depend on the ability of FCET to address the challenges in the implementation of entrepreneurship curriculum. Aguokagbue (2000) and Ezegbe (2012) were of the view that teaching and learning are very unrealistic in the absence of equipment; the problems in the realization of entrepreneurship objectives of institutions of higher learning have been compounded by lack of infrastructural and instructional facilities.
The National Commission for Colleges of Education (NCCE) (2012) minimum standard guidelines stipulated the resources required for the implementation of the entrepreneurship curriculum in colleges of education in Nigeria which include: resources, facilities and personnel. The personnel (Human resources) are sub-divided into teaching and non-teaching staff. The facilities include space and classroom which is sub-divided into lecture theatres and lecture halls to be provided for up to 500 students at a time with public address system, adequate number of classrooms for seminars and group discussions, staff office with basic furnishing and equipment including computers for heads of departments, other equipment and laboratories such as centre for educational technology (CET) and information and communication technology (ICT), school and departmental libraries, and a well-established college library. School and college library facilities are specially needed. Counselling centre with appropriate professionals, para-professionals, administrative and teaching staff should be provided with equipment like computer for computer-assisted instruction, counselling, administrative and related services. Each senior staff member should have a comfortable furnished office to himself/herself.
The NCCE further stated that there should be an office for the support staff (typists, clerks, technicians, etc) with relevant equipment (e.g. computers, typewriters, reprographic machines, etc). For academic staff, a minimum of Master’s degree with teaching qualification is required for appointment as a lecturer in a college of education. The recommended staff/student ratio is 1:25 for education in view of the fact that all students in the college offer the programme. Lecturers are the main people that implement entrepreneurship curriculum in colleges of education with the coordination of the deans of schools and departmental heads. The problem here is whether the lecturers and other supporting staff are adequately provided in Federal College of Education (Technical), Omoku in accordance with the rules of NCCE minimum standard.
The NCCE minimum standards also stated the mode of teaching, and advise that lecturers should effectively use learning materials and variety of instructional delivering strategies in teaching entrepreneurship and other general education courses for the purpose of putting theory into practice and enhancing students’ skill development. The problem is whether the lecturers in FCET, Omoku, comply with this rule or not.
The instructional delivery strategies include: problem-based learning method; practical, excursion/field trips, seminars, tutorials and group discussion; correspondence approach, distance education/distance learning system (DLS), micro-teaching, folklore and the play methods, team teaching, unit teaching and modular instruction, group and individual project method, community service, work experience/inquiry method, discovery/inquiry method, individualized instruction (e.g. programme instruction, and computer-assisted instruction/learning) (NCCE, 2012).
Instructional materials according to NCCE (2012) include closed circuit television CCTV, public address system, audio projector, microphones and slide projector with accessories, films, and computer equipment with printers, whiteboard and many others. Instructional materials or instructional media according to Ibiye (2005) comprised of chalkboard, books, journals, charts, photographs/pictures, slide projector, filmstrip, cartoons, computer, television, radio, audio tape and many others. However, the implementation of the entrepreneurship curriculum in colleges of education is based on the minimum standards stipulated by NCCE (2012) and (2008) as its benchmark. These means that inadequacy of these resources mentioned above by NCCE will constitute serious challenges for the implementation of entrepreneurship curriculum in FCET, Omoku, thereby leading to production of half-baked graduates who cannot be self-employed.
Some of the challenges encountered in curriculum implementation in tertiary education range from inadequate lecture halls, classrooms, chairs, table, library and many others (Ntikudem 2005). Similarly, Azuka (2003) submitted that the success or failure of any classroom interaction depends to a large extent on the availability and functionality of instructional equipment and facilities, teachers and the curriculum.
Equipment is necessary for the 21st century education programme; such equipment may include phone answering machine, internet system, uninterrupted power supply (UPS), digital calculator, laptops, smoke alarm communicator, fax machine, standby generator, multimedia board, printer and microwave radios and others (Bongotons and Onyenwe 2010). For adequate implementation of entrepreneurship curriculum for students’ skills acquisition, there is need to have the necessary equipment on ground in FCET, Omoku.
According to Chike-Obi (2012), there are so many challenges in the implementation of entrepreneurship curriculum in Nigerian tertiary institutions. Experience has shown that Nigerian educational system lacks facilities for inculcating entrepreneurship skills. In confirmation to Chike-Obi views, Akanbi (2002), Oviawe (2010) and Osakwe (2011) observed that Nigerian higher education is at a crossroads, hence its curriculum implementation lacks functionality as to produce graduates who possess entrepreneurship competencies. Lack of entrepreneurship competencies and skills among Nigerian youths could be linked to many inhibiting factors in Nigerian colleges of education which could be human or material.
College of education is a tertiary institution that equips students with knowledge and skills in teaching, -technical and business -for self-reliance, and awards NCE certificate on not less than a 3-years programme that provides credit towards a degree, provides not less than 1 year of training towards gainful employment, accredited or pre-accredited and is authorized to operate in a state (National Resource Centre for Youth Development, NRCYD 2013). Colleges of education are higher institutions established to train and equip future teachers with knowledge, skills and attitudes for their esteemed functions (Excellence and Education Network 2014).
Functions of Colleges of education, according to Excellence and Education Network (2014), include: to provide full-time courses in teaching, instruction and training in technical, vocational, sciences and arts; conduct courses in education for qualified teachers; arrange conferences, seminars and workshops related to the field of learning; and perform such other functions as in the opinion of the college council may serve to promote the objectives of the college.
College of education in the researcher’s view is an institution of higher learning where students receive tertiary education after completing secondary education. They award certificate such as: Nigerian Certificate in Education (NCE), Diploma and Bachelor of Education (B.ED). Federal Government established FCET, Omoku, with the mandate of training her citizens and equipping them with the right knowledge, skills and attitudes that will empower them to be useful to themselves and to society (FRN, 2004). The youths can’t be useful to themselves or to society if they have no job. Contrary to the efforts made by NCCE, Nigerian graduates in recent times are still wandering about seeking white collar jobs due to lack of adequate skills for self-employment despite the entrepreneurship courses they went through in higher institutions. It is now necessary to appraise the implementation of entrepreneurship curriculum in FCET, Omoku.
Appraisal is the judgment of the value, performance or nature of somebody, objects or events through which opinions are formed about them (Hornby 2005). Appraisal, according to Obioma (2010), is undertaking to ensure the maintenance of a reasonable standard to enhance teaching and learning as well as effective management in educational institutions.
Appraisal in the researcher’s view is the process of evaluating the compliance to the laid down standards for the implementation of any given programme. In the context of this study, appraisal of the implementation of entrepreneurship curriculum means to evaluate how entrepreneurship curriculum is being implemented in FCET, Omoku, whether the College has adequately complied with the standards of NCCE both in methods, human and material resources, which will ensure effective implementation of entrepreneurship curriculum and realization of the entrepreneurship objectives.
The effective implementation of entrepreneurship curriculum in FCET, Omoku, will depend on the college compliance to the procedures of the NCCE minimum standard which is the benchmark for this study. The main thrust of this study is to evaluate the adequacy of human and material resources available for the implementation of the entrepreneurship curriculum and the methods of teaching entrepreneurship in FCET Omoku, to enable students to acquire the entrepreneurial skills for self-employment. This is as a result of the fact that many graduates who pass through entrepreneurship courses in colleges’ education in Nigeria still lack the required skills for self-employment and have remained unemployed. Increase in graduate unemployment rate in Rivers State has given rise to youth restiveness and other social vices such as kidnapping, militancy, drug pushing, stealing, oil theft, arm-robbery, fighting, rape, destruction of life and property. It is not also clear whether the implementation of entrepreneurship curriculum in FCET, Omoku has in any way reduced the problem of graduate unemployment in Rivers State. It is against this background that the study seeks to appraise the implementation of entrepreneurship curriculum in Federal College of Education (Technical), Omoku, Rivers State.
Statement of the Problem
The implementation of entrepreneurship curriculum in colleges of education in Nigeria for unemployment reduction among Nigerian graduates is generating issues of concern among Nigerians. Nigerian graduates are still wandering about seeking white collar jobs which are very scarce, despite the entrepreneurship education they received in colleges of education and other tertiary institutions. It is expected that anyone who passes through entrepreneurship studies in any of the Nigerian tertiary institutions should be able to create job for self and others. Contrary, many graduates who received this entrepreneurship training from colleges of education and other tertiary institutions in Nigeria still lack the required skills and competencies for self-employment. There is need for adequate resources for effective implementation of entrepreneurship curriculum in Nigerian colleges of education and other tertiary institutions, which will reduce the high rate of graduate unemployment in Nigeria and in Rivers State in particular. Increase in graduate unemployment rate in Rivers State has given rise to youth restiveness and other social vices such as kidnapping, militancy, drug pushing, stealing, oil theft, arm-robbery, fighting, rape, destruction of life and property.
The Federal Government through the NCCE introduced entrepreneurship as a course in the curriculum of colleges of education in Nigeria as a measure to address the problem of unemployment in the country. However, it is not clear whether Federal College of Education (Technical), Omoku has adequately implemented the entrepreneurship curriculum for students’ skills acquisition for self-employment. It is against this backdrop that the study seeks to appraise the implementation of entrepreneurship curriculum in Federal College of Education (Technical), Omoku, Rivers State.
Purpose of the Study
The general purpose of the study is to appraise the implementation of the entrepreneurship curriculum in Federal College of Education (Technical), Omoku, Rivers State. Specifically, the study seeks to:
- determine the availability of facilities for the implementation of the entrepreneurship curriculum in Federal College of Education (Technical), Omoku;
- ascertain the adequacy of human resources available for teaching and learning of the entrepreneurship skills in Federal College of Education (Technical), Omoku;
- ascertain the instructional materials available to facilitate the learning of entrepreneurship in the Federal College of Education (Technical), Omoku;
- determine the instructional delivery strategies adopted by the lecturers in teaching entrepreneurship in Federal College of Education (Technical), Omoku; and
- determine the challenges lecturers face in the implementation of entrepreneurship curriculum in Federal College of Education (Technical), Omoku.
Significance of the Study
The study has both theoretical and practical significance. The theoretical significant of the study anchors on the entrepreneurship theory propounded by Drucker (1909-2005); this theory focuses on innovation and entrepreneurship. Its concern is on how innovation can bring about change in society and how entrepreneurship can be brought down to a system that can be applied by anyone. This theory is of a great significance to the current study due to its agreement with the objectives of entrepreneurship which is a strong variable in the current study. The findings of this work will add new information and knowledge to the existing body of knowledge on entrepreneurship.
Practically, the result of this study, if applied, will be of great benefits to the NCCE, supervisors, teachers (lecturers), students, Rivers State Government, Federal Colleges of Education (Technical), Omoku and other tertiary institutions, researchers and larger society.
The result of this study will be of immense benefit to the NCCE in terms of decision making and formulation of proper framework for entrepreneurship education, serve as a guide to the supervisors in carrying out supervisions and evaluation. It will help teachers (lecturers) update their knowledge in the use of modern instructional media for effective teaching and learning of the entrepreneurial skills and competencies. It will enable the students to acquire the right skills and competencies for self-employment by identifying business opportunities and exploiting them.
Furthermore, the result of the study, if applied, will relieve the Rivers State Government from the problem of unemployment and enable Federal College of Education (Technical), Omoku and other tertiary institutions in Nigeria to acquire the right facilities and resources for entrepreneurship education. The result will serve as empirical material to other researchers. Finally, the result of the study, if applied, will increase self-employment and reduce the problem of unemployment in Nigerian..
Scope of the Study
The geographical scope of this study is Federal College of Education (Technical), Omoku, Rivers State. While the content scope of the study include appraisal of the implementation of the entrepreneurship curriculum in the Federal College of Education (Technical), Omoku, Rivers State. The study will cover the adequacy of the facilities, human resources, and instructional materials available as well as methods of teaching and challenges lecturers face in the implementation of entrepreneurship curriculum in Federal College of Education (Technical), Omoku.
The following research questions were formulated to guide the study
- What are the facilities available for the implementation of the entrepreneurship curriculum in Federal College of Education (Technical), Omoku?
- What is the adequacy of human resources available for teaching and learning of the entrepreneurship skills in Federal College of Education (Technical), Omoku?
- What are the instructional materials available to facilitate the learning of entrepreneurship in Federal College of Education (Technical), Omoku?
- What instructional delivery strategies are adopted by lecturers in the implementation of the entrepreneurship curriculum in Federal College of Education (Technical) Omoku?
What are the challenges lecturers faces in the implementation of the entrepreneurship curriculum in Federal College