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ASSESSMENT OF THE IMPACT OF EFFLUENT QUALITY FROM NIGERIA BOTTLING COMPANY ON ENVIRONMENT AND PUBLIC HEALTH

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CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
Water is a vital resource for agriculture, manufacturing, transportation, domestic and many other human activities (Phiri et al., 2005). Rivers are indispensable freshwater systems that are necessary for the continuation of life. They are resources of great importance across the globe. The benefits of these systems to all living organism cannot be over emphasized as they remain one of the most essential human needs (Roya, 2003). The healthy aquatic ecosystem is dependent on the biological diversity and Physicochemical characteristics of water. Aquatic ecosystems are affected by several wastes that significantly deplete biodiversity. The loss of biodiversity and its effects are predicted to be greater for aquatic ecosystems than for terrestrial ecosystems.
Serious ecological and sanitary problems are associated with pollutants discharged into the rivers. Water pollution has significant effect on human health, balance of aquatic ecosystems, socioeconomic development and prosperity (Vaishali and Punita, 2010). Industrialization, like other human activities that impact on the environment, often results in pollution and degradation. It carries inevitable costs and problems in terms of pollution of the air, water resources and general degradation of the natural environment (Thomas et al., 1992). High toxicity problems and eutrophication are associated with point and non-point sources of pollution (Jain, 2002). While most people in urban areas of the developing countries have access to piped water, rural areas still rely on borehole and river water for domestic use.
Ninety percent of all wastewater (effluent) from the industries in developing countries is discharged untreated directly into rivers, lakes or the oceans where they pollute the usable water supply (Phiri et al., 2005; WWAP, 2009, Corcoran et al., 2010). Industrial effluents may contain
heavy metals like mercury, chromium, lead and cadmium; salts of cyanide, nitrite and nitrate; organic matter, micro-organisms and nutrients; and toxic chemicals such as pesticides (Mkuula, 2004). Effluent is defined by U. S. EPA (2006) as wastewater treated or untreated that flows out `of a treatment plant, sewer or industrial outfall. Unmanaged wastewater can be a source of pollution and a hazard for the health of human populations and the environment (Corcoran, 2010). Inability to effectively and efficiently manage vast amount of wastes generated by various anthropogenic activities particularly in developing countries has created one of the most critical problems in our environment. Of more importance is the manner in which industrial effluents are being disposed into the ambient environment, water bodies like fresh water reservoirs being mostly affected. With such activity, these natural resources are rendered unsuitable for both primary and secondary usages (Fakayode, 2005). The major sources of drinking water in Nigeria-inland water bodies and estuaries-have always been contaminated by the activities of the adjoining populations and industrial establishments (Sangodoyin, 1995).
River systems are the primary means for disposal of industrial effluents, and these have the capacity to alter the physical, chemical and biological nature of the receiving water body (Sangodoyin, 1991). Of recent, there have been pollution stress on surface water bodies as a result of increased industrial activities (Ajayi and Osibanji, 1981). The consequences of this are of great magnitude to public health and the environment (Osibanji et al., 2011). Ideally, effluents from industries are supposed to be properly treated before being discharged into the environment. In Nigeria, there are laws put in place to guide and regulate industrial discharge practices and environmental contamination generally. The federal environmental protection Agency (FEPA) established to check environmental abuses has had little or no impact on pollution control in our environment (Ezeronye and Amogu, 1998). In Nigeria 80% of the industries are located in urban
areas. Population explosion, uncontrolled urbanization and industrialization have caused a high rate of waste generation in Nigeria (Rosegrant, 2001). Akpata (1990) pointed out that aquatic pollution problem in Nigeria was increasing in scope and dimension. Olayemi (1994) identified that regular, unregulated indiscriminate dumping of waste into water bodies worsen aquatic pollution
Due to the increased pollution of watersheds in Nigeria caused by industrial effluents, water quality declination could occur rapidly on the receiving rivers if attention is not paid to the quality of the effluents. It is acceptable to discharge industrial effluents into a watercourse or waterbody only when parameters of the effluent do not exceed the maximum permissible standards of Federal Ministry of Environment (FEMEV). Nigeria is a high fertility country and there is evidence that its large population inhibits government’s efforts in meeting the basic needs of the people. With a population that already exceeds 130 million people and growing at roughly 3 per cent annually, (United Nations, 2004). The increase in population has increased water demand for domestic, irrigation, farming and industrial use. Many rivers have been evidently polluted due to industrial development with inadequate water conservation measures. (Mkuula, 2004). Asa River is a major river of economic, agricultural and environmental significance in Ilorin—the capital city of Kwara State, Nigeria. The river receives effluents from industries located along its course, apart from domestic wastes and other activities carried out along it that contribute to its pollution. It was also reported that the major identified source of pollution of Asa River was direct runoff of effluents from the industries (Adekunle and Eniola 2008). If the situation of receiving water bodies is not urgently addressed, the impacts will be difficult to reverse in the near future and without a baseline data this is not achievable. These affect the quality of the river water.
Rivers are the primary means for disposal of the treated, untreated or partially treated effluents from industries which are near them. Industries like Nigerian Bottling Company discharge there effluent directly into rivers that are nearby. which might cause the interference of the water quality by increasing organic wastes and nutrients hence eutrophication which later cause low dissolved oxygen with an unbalanced ecosystem, fish mortality, odours and aesthetic nuisances into the aquatic systems downstream. Increased industrial activities has led to river water pollution stress and become a common problem in most of the watersheds of Nigeria. Industrial effluents may contain wastes some of which are toxic to human beings and the environment. People who live near these rivers use water from these rivers for domestic purposes. Unfortunately, data and information are lacking on the quality of the effluents from these industries and also on the quality of the water from these rivers. This creates an urgent need to assess the effect of effluents from Nigeria Bottling Company on water quality of these rivers.
The study assessed the current status of water quality in nearby rivers and it is hoped that the results of this study will assist the relevant industries and authorities in designing appropriate preventive measures to ensure that the water quality in the streams is improved. The study also focused on determining the variation of the same parameters along nearby rivers. These parameters were selected by considering the Nigeria Bottling Company that discharge their effluents into nearby rivers. Furthermore, the study also measured effluents flow rate from Nigerian Bottling Company and estimated pollution rates from Nigerian Bottling Company. The main limitation was time, weather and finance which led to sample collection and analysis for only one day in a month. Therefore, the general objective of this study was to assess the impact of the effluents from Nigerian Bottling Company on the water quality in nearby rivers, and the specific objectives of the research were to
1. Determine pH, TDS, E.C, temperature, colour, Odour, TSS, DO, COD, BOD5, total hardness, Sulphate, Phosphate, Iron, Nitrate, Chloride, Lead, Calcium and Magnesium from Nigerian Bottling Company effluents.
2. Evaluate the impact of industrial effluent on the

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