Bacteria of the Enterobacteriaceae family are primary inhabitants of the lower gastrointestinal tract of man and animals. Many survive readily in nature while some are found living free where water and minimum energy sources are available. In humans, they comprise the highest proportion of the bacterial content in the gut. They are also found in the female genital tract and as transient colonizers of the mucous membrane. As a family, these microorganisms produce the widest variety of infections compared to other microbial agents (Oguntebeju and Nwobu, 2004).
Throughout history, there has been a continual battle between humans and the multitude of microorganisms that cause infection and disease. Animals are known to constitute a vast reservoir of enteric bacteria with the general problem of environmental contamination by organic waste with regard to human and animals. Bacterial resistance to antibiotics has assumed an increasing importance with regards to its impact on public health, economy and ecology (Kruse and Sorum, 1994).
Human populations, animal populations, and the environment are all interconnected, and there is a blurring of the lines previously drawn that distinguished human diseases from animal diseases (Chomel, 1998). Infections of humans and animals with antimicrobial resistant bacteria, contamination of food, drink and the environment with resistant bacteria has become of significant concern (Poppe et al., 2001).
Increasing microbiological and clinical evidences reveal that resistant bacteria or resistance determinants might be passed from animals to humans resulting in infections that are more difficult to treat, (Sayah et al., 2004). Antimicrobial-resistant organisms in domestic animals such as poultry, beef and swine are well documented (NARMS, 2002) and have been implicated as reservoirs for multidrug-resistant food borne pathogens. Interaction with waste materials from these livestock species may confer resistant pathogens and genetic elements to free ranging wildlife, potentially creating an additional environmental reservoir of resistant organisms (Hudson et al., 2000).
Enterobacteriaceae are not only pathogens and commensals of the mammalian gastro intestinal tract, they are also found in abundance in most environments, notably soil, water, and domestic environments (McKeon et al., 1995).They are Gram negative rod shaped bacteria that contain more than 100 species of bacteria that normally inhabit the intestine of humans and animals. Members are frequently resistant to common antibiotics; they ferment a variety of different carbohydrates. The patterns of this fermentation are used to differentiate and classify them (Krumperman, 1983).These bacteria are found in large numbers in intestinal tract, and are transmitted most often via the faecal/oral route. This often happens as a result of inappropriate hand washing after handling faeces of humans, animals or drinking contaminated water (Krumperman, 1983).
Resistance among this group of organisms has often been attributed to exposure to antibiotics (Aibinu et al., 2003; Akinyemi et al., 2007; Bogaard and Stobberigh, 2007; Costa et al., 2013; Eze, 2012). This work is designated to isolate members of this group from humans where they have been presumably exposed to antibacterial agents and compare their antibiogram with that of similar species isolated from the wild life that may not have been exposed to conventional antibiotics. The set objectives are as follows:
1.1 Aims and Objective
- To isolate members of Enterobacteriaceae from wild life and human sources
- To compare the resistance profile of isolates from human and animal sources.
- To compare the resistance profile of isolate from humans on antibiotics and those not on antibiotics vis a vis isolates from wild life.
- To isolate and compare the resistance plasmids of isolates from the above mentioned sources.
Statistical comparism of the resistance pattern of isolates from the above mentioned sources.