Background of the Study
At independence on October 1, 1960, Nigeria maintained the curriculum fashioned out for her education programme at the primary and secondary school levels by the British government. The curriculum showed that the colonial government was not enthusiastic about the promotion of science and vocational education which forms the bedrock of technological development of any nation. The disenchantment with the colonial curriculum, as inherited at independence, motivated the Federal Government of Nigeria to convey a conference of all stakeholders in the education enterprise in 1969. The outcome of the conference was the emergence of the national policy on education in 1977 later revised in 1981, 1998 and 2004. Having carefully studied the loopholes in the previous education system, the Federal Government of Nigeria, through the national policy on education, brought some innovations to bear on the teaching – learning process. One of the innovations contained in the policy was the formalisation of guidance services. This service aims at catering for the adjustment needs of the learner. Thus, the Federal Republic of Nigeria (2004:53) states:
In view of the apparent ignorance of many young people about career prospects and in view of personality maladjustment among school children, career officers and counsellors shall be appointed in post-primary and primary institutions. Since qualified personnel in this category are scarce, government shall continue to make provisions for the training of interested teachers in guidance and counselling. Guidance and counselling shall also feature in teacher education programmes. Proprietors of schools shall provide guidance counsellors in adequate number in each primary and post-primary school.
With the formalisation of guidance services in school, government hoped to produce holistic school learners who would acquire education in the normative rather than in the descriptive sense. Government recognised and stressed the need for counselling to assume a prominent position in the teacher education programme. Thus, provision was made for the training of interested teachers who would like to become counsellors who would render counselling, appraisal, information, placement, referral and follow-up and evaluation services to the school system. (Egbule, 2002).
There is no gainsaying the fact that for the counsellor to translate personal and professional qualities to rendering the aforementioned services effectively, a conducive environment needs to be provided by stakeholders in the school community. The counsellor needs the support of the principal, teachers, students, parents as well as the officials of ministry of education and the post primary education board to be able to operate confidently and freely. Commenting on obstacles encountered by counsellors in the performance of guidance duties, Alutu (2005:123) has this to say of Edo state:
Principals do not co-operate with counsellors and some keep away relevant information from them; funds to run counselling programmes are hardly provided; general lack of understanding of the need for counselling by principals, teachers and students; no provision for counselling on the school time table in almost all the schools; …counsellors are saddled with teaching assignment and other general administrative duties instead of spending time on issues concerning individuals or group of students.
A counsellor could be hard-working but because of environmental constraints he may not be able to utilise the resources in the repertoire. This results in the counsellor being labelled as incompetent. This invariably creates an unpleasant state of tension, otherwise known as cognitive dissonance. Cognitive refers to mental awareness while dissonance means disharmony. In the context of the counsellor’s job (the school), cognitive dissonance is perceptible when the psychological and social variables within the organisational climate are antagonistic to the course of success of the counsellor on the job. It is a drive or feeling of discomfort caused by holding two or more inconsistent cognitions. Thus, cognitive dissonance is a psychological term which describes the uncomfortable tension that may come from having conflicting thoughts at the same time, or from engaging in behaviour that conflicts with one’s beliefs. Hence, Idowu & Esere (2007) state that “cognitive dissonance is the psychological conflict arising from holding two or more incompatible beliefs simultaneously.” On his part, Kolo (2006:15) says “dissonance is a state of psychological discomfort that is aroused when an event occurs which disconfirms any strong expectation”. As noted by Alutu (2005) counsellors in secondary schools in Edo state are made to teach rather than practice counselling for which they were trained. This is role-conflict and counsellors, like other professionals, compare their professional expectations with their current job outcomes.
Thus, discrepancy in these expectations creates dissonance or conflict in the counsellor which threatens the psychological well-being or state of the worker (Abraham 1999). In a nutshell, it is a condition of conflict or anxiety resulting from inconsistency between one’s beliefs and actions such as opposing the slaughter of animals and eating meat. In the simplest explanation, cognitive dissonance is having two different and contradicting beliefs in an individual’s brain at the same time. Operationally, therefore, cognitive dissonance is seen as the psychological tension experienced by the guidance counsellor as sequel to the realisation that he or she is being made to perform roles for which the counsellor did not train or carrying out activities that are diametrically opposed to the ethical code or the belief of the counsellor in the school system.
Cognitive dissonance is expressed from the following dimensions. Firstly, psychological tension, which is the mental anguish suffered by the individual as sequel to the awareness that the person has behaved stupidly, unethically, immorally, illegally or unconventionally. This distressing mental state occurs when people do things they would not want to do, or express opinions that are contrary to opinions they are holding. This, naturally, leads to the second dimension of this construct which is the motivation to reduce the tension. The situation is analogous to thirst or hunger drive which can only be mitigated by either drinking water or eating food. However, unlike these simple physiological processes which are reduced through physical actions, reducing dissonance is a mental and complex process. Reduction of psychological tension is accomplished through cognitive restructuring by changing the way we think about the world as well as the way we behave. People who are dissonant could adopt any of the following strategies to mitigate the psychological tension. Firstly, people change their attitude in order to synchronise their attitude and behaviour with the issue at hand. A second strategy of this phenomenon is that the dissonant person could add more cognition. Here, for instance, are two discrepant thoughts that cause dissonance, “I like smoking but it can lead to cancer of the lungs”. The person could add the following cognitions in order to reduce dissonance: “smoking relaxes me and keeps my weight down, which benefits my health” (Franzoi, 2000:172). Thirdly, the dissonant person can alter the importance by stating as follows: “it is more to stay relaxed and slim than to worry about may be getting cancer thirty years from now” (Franzoi, 2000:172). Fourthly, a dissonant person could rationalise that there was no alternative to the value of the perceived choice. Using this strategy, the person rationalises that there is little or no choice than to engage in the discrepant behaviour. Finally, the dissonant person could trivialise the importance of the event that culminated in the dissonance.
A third dimension to cognitive dissonance is level of reward accruing from the behaviour. The higher the level of reward accruing to individuals who engage in unethical behaviour the less the degree of dissonance (Franzoi, 2000). Proponents of this approach posit that people who are highly rewarded for their action(s) have sufficient justification for the counter attitudinal behaviour and as such never experience dissonance. Conversely, people who are less rewarded have insufficient justification to engage in the counter attitudinal behaviour, and hence they experience dissonance. Thus, the weaker the reasons for acting inconsistently with one’s attitudes, beliefs or conviction, the greater the mental anguish experienced by the individual and the greater the motivation to reduce the tension by changing the attitude in question.
The fourth dimension to cognitive dissonance is forced compliance. This occurs, when an individual acts, behaves or expresses an opinion in a way or manner that is dissonant to what the individual would have loved to do or what the person believes because various circumstances are compelling the person to comply. Such circumstances include the nature of the person’s job, the need to demonstrate loyalty to one’s boss, or fear of being sanctioned or sacked from the job. Thus, for fear of being blackmailed by the principal, the counsellor could be compelled to carry a full teaching load to the detriment of counselling which is the primary responsibility.
The last dimension of note in cognitive dissonance is phoney, in which people exhibit pretentious behaviour, de-emphasising the import of genuine and authentic behaviour. Many at times, people rationalise their actions, attributing their behaviour to institutional demands, or the demand of the job. In order to mitigate the psychological tension provoked by their actions they employ the weapon of rationalisation with such a statement as “give to Caesar what is Caesar’s and to God what is God’s” or what is further expressed in local parlance as “if you cannot beat them you join them”. In Nigeria, the unemployment situation may seem to be compelling the counsellor to behave inauthentically by accepting responsibilities such as membership of the disciplinary committee for the simple reason of protecting the only means of livelihood and ignoring the negative impact of the membership on student’s patronage of guidance services.
From the foregoing, if counsellors are compelled to take on roles such as full teaching load, as practised in states like Anambra, Imo, Abia, Delta and Ebony (Okonkwo, 2005); and Edo (Alutu, 2005); appointed to membership of disciplinary committee (Okonkwo, 2005)’ and even as vice principals or principals (Okonkwo, 2005), it is a clear case of role conflict. The implication of the above identified conflict is that the counsellor cannot effectively perform the guidance services for which he/she has been trained.
The aforementioned dimensions of cognitive dissonance clearly indicate that counsellors in Nigeria are not shielded from the onslaught of this psychological phenomenon. The dimensions also indicate that dissonance occurs when counsellors’ activities conform to organisational norms but run contrary to the counsellor’s beliefs and professional training. Similarly, the dimensions of dissonance discussed above paint picture of anguish rather than pleasure in the mind of the counsellor. It becomes imperative, therefore, for one to question how satisfied the counsellor has been with his/her counselling job in Nigeria.
Job satisfaction is an indispensable goal every worker aspires to attain during active service and after retiring from the job. This is the sense of inner fulfilment and pride achieved when performing a particular job. It can be conceived as a feeling of accomplishment and worth developed by an employee following the performance on the job.
Commenting on this construct, Akinade (2005:90) sees job satisfaction as: “gaining contentment in a given career or vocation. The satisfaction could be in terms of take home pay, conducive work environment, or co-operative colleagues, and fairness from the establishment or promotion that comes at objective period”. This definition agrees with Weiss (2002) who described job satisfaction as: “how content an individual is with his or her job”. On his part, Adeyemo (2003:1) says:
Job satisfaction is a complex and multifaceted concept which means different things to different people. Analysts often define job satisfaction with reference to the needs and values of individual and the extent to which these needs and values are satisfied in the workplace.
In the context of this work, job satisfaction could, therefore, be seen as a worker’s sense of achievement and success. It is generally linked with productivity as well as worker’s personal well-being. It implies doing a job the individual enjoys, doing it well, and being suitably rewarded for the worker’s efforts. It further implies enthusiasm and happiness with one’s job. This attitude can be induced by some factors which can be classified into extrinsic and intrinsic variables. This position is espoused by Syptak, Marsland & Ulmer (1999). They argued that two sets of factors influence workers disposition to their work. Factors such as company and administrative policies, supervision, interpersonal relations, salaries and working conditions they referred to as extrinsic motivators. Discussing the extrinsic factors, they stressed that company and administrative policies could be a great source of frustration for employees if the policies are not employee friendly. On the other hand, fair policies would decrease dissatisfaction among workers. The second extrinsic factor identified by Syptak, Marsland & Ulmer is supervision. The role of the supervisor is very crucial in the management of an organisation. It takes good leadership skills to treat workers fairly. Supervision should be objective and should be aimed at helping workers to grow by giving feedback on their performance. The third extrinsic factor identified is salary. Workers’ perception of the salary they are paid may influence the attitude of workers to their job. The two-factor theory posits that if workers feel that they are not adequately compensated they would be unhappy working with the organisation. Another extrinsic factor that could influence the emotions of workers is interpersonal relations. This variable defines the level of trust that would prevail among workers. Employees must learn to build relationships that result in mutual trust among the workers. Good relationship would not only affect workers positively but also lead to higher productivity since it may foster good relationship between workers and management. Similarly, working conditions constitute another factor that could motivate employees to higher productivity. Syptak, Marsland & Ulmer believe that the environment in which people work has a tremendous impact on their self-esteem. They argue that the physical environment such as the office space and the quality of facility provided is capable of stimulating workers to have satisfaction in their job. It was further argued that although extrinsic or hygiene factors may not necessarily motivate workers but when they are poorly managed by management it results in dissatisfaction in workers. Ultimately, some of the workers leave the organization.
In a further development, Syptak, Marsland & Ulmer (1999) identified variables such as work itself, achievement, recognition, responsibility and advancement as intrinsic factors of motivation. Work itself, that is, the nature of the work done by the worker has a great impact on the attitude of the worker towards his or her job. Employees must perceive their job as important and meaningful for them to derive satisfaction from the job. Workers would consider their job meaningful when it is perceived to make real contribution to the society. For the counsellor, working with clients, by rendering guidance services would be more fulfilling to counsellors than principals forcing them to carry teaching loads. The second motivator they identified is achievement. They posit that workers develop a sense of satisfaction in the job when they perceive themselves achievers. When employees love their job they accept every challenge they might encounter on the job with a view to developing a sense of achievement. Thus, employers should set clear and achievable goals for their workers in order to avoid frustration on the job. Saddling the counsellor with full load of teaching and counselling responsibilities is inimical to counsellor’s effectiveness. In such situation counselling is sacrificed at the altar of classroom teaching culminating in perceptually stigmatising the counsellor as indolent and ineffective. Another motivator that has been identified by Syptak, Marsland & Ulmer is recognition. Workers, at all levels of the organisation, want to be acknowledged for the achievement they make on the job. Such achievements may not necessarily be monumental before workers are accorded recognition. The recognition, which could be in form of tangible or intangible reinforcers, should be prompt for it to have a motivating effect on the employees. Fourthly, workers could be intrinsically motivated when given a sense of responsibility on the job. This simply means that workers are allowed to have full freedom to carry out their job with little or no interference from their superior officers. However, management should put mechanisms in place to ensure that work freedom is exhibited within regulations guiding the job. The final intrinsic factor identified by Syptak, Marsland & Ulmer is advancement. Employees are motivated to work harder when they perceive opportunity for advancement. Thus, employers should reward workers’ loyalty, hard work and productivity with promotion. Workers should be granted study leave or sent on short term courses to acquire new skills that would enhance good performance on the job. When all the aforementioned extrinsic and intrinsic factors are properly managed by employers, indices of job satisfaction such as commitment, loyalty, involvement and identification would be palpable in workers. The organisation stands to gain and productivity would be high because indices of dissatisfaction such as absenteeism and high labour turn over would be reduced to the barest minimum among its workers.
Some important dimensions of job satisfaction have been identified (Muchinsky, 2000). The first dimension of note is commitment. This is described as attachment to the goals and values of the employing organisation (Ezoem, 1995). Commenting further, he stated that commitment could be conceptualised as a form of psychological bond between workers and organisations. Meyer (1997) stated that organisational commitment reflects the employee’s relationship with the organisation which usually, would affect the decision to either remain or quit the organisation. Three components of commitment are identifications, involvement and loyalty (Ezoem, 1995). Identification refers to the worker’s adoption of the goals and values of the organisation while involvement describes the extent to which a worker identifies psychologically with the job and the importance of work to one’s self image. Brown (1996) opined that people might be stimulated by and drawn deeply into their work, or they might be alienated from it mentally and emotionally. He, however, concluded by adding that job involvement is more strongly related to how people perceive their job and their approach to handling it. The third component, which is loyalty, refers to a feeling of affection for and attachment to the organisation (Ezoem, 1995).
The second dimension to job satisfaction is performance. The word “performance” conjures the notion of accomplishment, attainment, or the execution of task (Ezoem, 1995). Similarly, “performance is synonymous with behaviour; it is what people actually do, and it can be observed” (Muchinsky, 2000:206). Performance comprises those actions that are relevant to the organisational goals and can be measured in terms of each worker’s proficiency (that is, level of contribution by each worker). Performance could be evaluated in terms of being high or low; good or poor; and satisfactory or unsatisfactory. Usually, performance is considered high, good or satisfactory if the ratee had a positive score (Muchinsky, 2000). Conversely, performance is regarded as low, poor or unsatisfactory when the score is negative.
The third dimension to job satisfaction is referred to as withdrawal behaviour (Muchinsky, 2000). This behaviour reflects the worker’s withdrawal from noxious employment conditions and this could be expressed through absenteeism (temporary withdrawal) and turnover (permanent withdrawal). The practical implication of the view expressed above is that workers who love or are satisfied with their jobs are more likely to make extra effort to get to work irrespective of any adverse conditions. On the other hand, when workers detest the conditions of their job they would most likely stay away from job on the slightest adverse condition (Muchinsky, 2000). Thus, job satisfaction refers to the pleasurable state of contentment expressed by the counsellor following the evaluation of the job he or she does or the activities the counsellor carries out in the school system.
Cognitive dissonance theory postulates that people would strive to minimize dissonance in their environment since the presence of dissonance would result in distress and dissatisfaction with a given situation and indeed, their job. Employees who experience less dissonance in their job would exhibit a higher level of job satisfaction (Okpara, 2002). The above assertion supports Schwepker (1999) who stated that employees desire consistency between their ethical value system and the ethical climate prevalent in their workplace. Thus, unethical behaviour by managers or supervisors provokes cognitive dissonance which, in turn, influences the level of satisfaction of workers on the job (Viswesvaran & Deshpande, 1996). The above conclusion correlates with practices by some school principals who force counsellors to engage in roles such as carrying full teaching loads, sitting on students’ disciplinary committee and supervising students serving punishment. The consequence of the attitude of principals to the counsellors is that the latter experience role conflicts resulting in cognitive dissonance and this has negatively influenced counsellors’ level of commitment to the counselling role.
Statement of the Problem
Counsellors in Delta and Edo states, Nigeria, have been indifferent to guidance functions in the school system because government and principals have not given the service the attention it deserves. A visit to most schools in the area of study clearly shows that many schools have no counsellors and where they exist, the counsellor – students’ ratio does not conform to national standards of one counsellor to five hundred students (1: 500). It has also been observed that in most schools counsellors have no private offices where they can attend to their clients. Rather, counsellors are located in the general staffroom where they attend to general school matters instead of counselling issues. Where the counsellor is fortunate to have a small office, it lacks basic physical facilities.
Counsellors are compelled to carry a full teaching load, appointed as member of students’ disciplinary committee or made to supervise students serving punishments. Thus, most counsellors are experiencing role conflict, the consequence of which is that most counsellors are groaning under the psychological anguish known as cognitive dissonance. Though, most counsellors may not be satisfied on the job, but in order to retain their job, in the face of no alternatives, counsellors have resigned to fate. Counsellors have become apathetic towards the counselling job. Hence, the impact of counselling is not felt in most schools in the area of study. Consequently, counsellors are described as non – chalant to their job and this has earned them labels from principals and teachers as lazy people. The implication, therefore, is that there is the need for concerted effort, in the direction of research, in order to ascertain what has engendered the perceived negative attitude among counsellors.
From the backdrop of role conflict experienced by guidance counsellors in the Nigerian school system, such a negative assessment of counsellors who are saddled with full load of teaching or made to take on roles such as membership of the disciplinary committee, acts as the labour master, dormitory teacher, or personal secretary to the principal (Alutu, 2005), as incompetent, cannot be considered a fair assessment. Counsellors, like other professionals, compare their professional expectations with their current job outcomes. Thus, discrepancy in role expectations creates dissonance or conflict in the counsellor which threatens the psychological well-being or state of the worker. The counsellor may mitigate the tension created by changing his or her attitude because of irrevocability illusion (that is he has no alternative job). Thus, this study sought to find out the dimensions of cognitive dissonance the counsellor experiences, his level of satisfaction on the job and the relationship between the experienced dimensions of cognitive dissonance and the level of satisfaction. Against this background, the problem of the study is “How satisfied are guidance counsellors with their job in the face of deprivations they suffer and the role conflict experienced in the school system”?
Purpose of the Study
The general purpose of the study was to investigate the relationship between cognitive dissonance and level of job satisfaction among counsellors. Specifically, the researcher investigated the:
- dimensions of cognitive dissonance experienced by counsellors;
- dimensions of job satisfaction experienced by counsellors;
- level of job satisfaction among counsellors;
4 relationship between counsellor’s extrinsic factors and cognitive dissonance;
- relationship between counsellors’ extrinsic factors and level of job satisfaction;
- extent to which intrinsic factors relate to counsellors’ cognitive dissonance;
- relationship between intrinsic factors and level of job satisfaction among counsellors; and
- relationship between cognitive dissonance dimensions and level of job satisfaction among counsellors.
Significance of the Study
The findings of this study would be of great benefit to counsellors, private and public employers of labour, managers of human resource, especially school principals and the general society. The findings of the study would provide insight to the counsellor who would come to the realization that cognitive dissonance has strategies that could help him become more effective in the discharge of the counselling role for which trained. Dissonance strategies would enable counsellors to undermine the negative environmental factors that tend to dampen the morale of counsellors and hamper their commitment to the counselling role in the school system. For example, espousing dissonance strategies such as changing one of the dissonant cognitions, adding consonant cognitions and trivializing the import of negative environmental conditions under which the counsellor is currently serving in the school system, would help him to take counselling as the primary responsibility in the school. Mobilising the dissonance strategies outlined above would help the counsellor to restructure the cognition thereby mitigating the impact of role conflict currently experienced by the counsellor on the job.
Similarly, school principals would also benefit from the findings of the study. Counsellors and principals are partners in progress and as such the work of the counsellor complements that of the principal to the benefit of the learner. The findings of the study would expose the principal to the understanding that counsellors who are experiencing role conflicts would grapple with the psychological phenomenon known as cognitive dissonance; a condition which stimulates low level of satisfaction on the job. From the findings of the study a counsellor who is performing roles of counselling , teaching, sitting on disciplinary panel that administer harsh punishment on the same child he is to counsel, cannot experience high level of satisfaction on the job because he is caught in the web of multiple cognitions. Thus, principals would benefit from the knowledge of this study in that a satisfied counsellor would be more disposed to execute preventive guidance which would create good psychological climate for the principal to administer the school. No doubt, the services of the counsellor promote discipline in the school, which in turn, is the bedrock for learning.
Employers of labour would also benefit from the results of this study. Employers would become aware that counsellors who are dissonant and who are unable to mitigate the effects of the psychological strain they experienced may quit the organisation at the slightest opportunity since they are not satisfied on the job. The results of the study would bring about the consciousness in employers that counsellors who are highly satisfied on the job would identify with, and establish a psychological bond with the school. Satisfaction on the job would propel the counsellor to shun withdrawal tendencies such as repeated late – coming to school, absenteeism, indolence and high labour turn over.
One basic aim of government in introducing guidance services in the school was to combat maladjustment among young persons which had culminated in innumerable vices that have plagued the nation. The goal of government would have been realised if counsellors are assigned the roles for which they trained in the school system rather than being saddled with teaching loads. The results of this study have shown that counsellors who are dissonant because of role conflicts may not experience self – actualisation on the job. Conversely, counsellors who are not experiencing psychological conflicts are more likely to be committed to guidance roles in the school system. The implication is that they would render guidance services, which would in turn, stem the tide of growing incidence of social vices such as armed robbery, cultism, prostitution, advanced fee fraud, kidnapping and other related crimes which have dented the image of the nation. Similarly, a highly satisfied counsellor would work assiduously to guide students to make appropriate career choices which would result in the realization of one of the goals of government which is reduction of unemployment among school leavers. Vocational guidance resulting in the employment of young persons in productive ventures would boost the economy of the nation.
Another perspective from which this study would be considered significant is in its novelty. Most counselling related studies in Nigeria have concerned themselves with the role of the counsellor in the vocational, educational and personal-social needs of the client. In Nigeria, attention has not been paid to investigating the attitudinal position of the counsellor, whether or not the counsellor is satisfied with the job. More so, the question of dissonance and the counsellor’s level of job satisfaction has not been given the attention it deserves in research. Thus, the findings of this study would provide a veritable ground for other researchers to build on.
Finally, for the target beneficiaries to become acquainted with the findings of this study, segments of it would be published in scholarly journals. The entire work would be published online in the websites of University of Nigeria, Nsukka and Benson Idahosa University, Benin City. Ultimately, seminars, workshops and conferences would be organised using the Counselling Association of Nigeria and other fora to disseminate the findings of the study to employers and supervisors of counsellors, with a view to persuading them to implement some of the recommendations that may arise from the study.
Scope of the Study
The study investigated the relationship between cognitive dissonance and level of job satisfaction among guidance counsellors. Only trained counsellors who are practicing in public secondary schools in Delta and Edo states were investigated.
In order to provide empirical basis to ascertain whether or not counsellors are experiencing conflict in their job, the dimensions of cognitive dissonance such as psychological tension, motivation to reduce tension, level of reward, forced compliance and phoney were investigated. Similarly, dimensions of job satisfaction such as commitment, involvement, loyalty, performance, absenteeism and turnover were investigated. In the same vain, the study examined some of the extrinsic (context) factors such as organisational or school policies, supervision, interpersonal relationship, working conditions and pay package as they relate to job satisfaction. Also investigated were intrinsic (content) factors such as achievement, recognition, responsibility, work itself and advancement opportunities relating to job satisfaction.
The following research questions guided the study.
- Which are the dimensions of cognitive dissonance experienced by guidance counsellors in Nigeria?
- Which are the dimensions of job satisfaction among guidance counsellors?
- What is the level of job satisfaction among guidance counsellors?
- What is the relationship between counsellors’ extrinsic factors and cognitive dissonance?
- What is the relationship between counsellors’ extrinsic factors and job satisfaction?
- To what extent do intrinsic factors relate to counsellors’ cognitive dissonance?
- To what extent do intrinsic factors relate to job satisfaction among guidance counsellors?
- What is the relationship between cognitive dissonance dimensions and level of job satisfaction among guidance counsellors?
The study tested the following null hypotheses at (P. < 0.05).
Ho1: There is no significant relationship between the dimensions of cognitive dissonance experienced by guidance counsellors and their level of job satisfaction.
Ho2: There is no significant relationship between extrinsic factors and the level of job satisfaction experienced by guidance counsellors.
Ho3: There is no significant relationship between intrinsic factors and the level of job satisfaction experienced by guidance counsellors