1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Inventory is one of the resources that are managed by business organizations and it was first recorded in 1601. The need for inventory control cannot be overemphasized as it is a means for improving the
performance of manufacturing industries. Inventory can be defined as a record of a business current assets including property owned, merchandise on hand and the value of work in progress and work complete but not sold and it is classified as a current asset because it can be turned into liquid cash
within a short period of time. Inventory has created a great impact on the profitability of the manufacturing firm which resulted to the deep research of this topic. Effectiveness of inventory management in a manufacturing company.
Inventory plays a major role in the operation of many businesses and manufacturing companies. In manufacturing, inventories of raw materials allow companies to operate independently of their sources of supplies. Day to day operation are not dependent on deliveries from supplies since stock of
the necessary mateials are maintained and used s needed. Without inventory control, millions of naira could be lost year because of non accountability of stocks and inaccurate checks and balances.
The process of control and management of inventory is a very important factor in the success or failure of any business for example, little stock will result in stock out which will disrupt the production distribution cycle that is crucial to the survival of all manufacturing companies while too much stock will tie down the resources of a company. Poor or inadequate inventory management can present a serious challenge to the productive capacity of a manufacturing organization. In addition to raw materials and finished goods, many companies also maintain items of assets, property, inventories of work in progress, office supplies, business firms and general operation supplies.
Inventories often constitutes the most significant part of current assets of large companies. In the public limited companies, inventories are approximately 60% of current assets on the average. The US Burean of the census stated that inventory and accounts receivable ate the two largest accounts of equal magnitude and together they comprise almost 80% of current assets and over 30% of total assets for all manufacturing companiesin 1982.
Considering the large sum of money that are committed to the stocks of raw materials, work in progress and finished goods, it is therefore of paramount necessity that these stocks be managed efficiently and effectively in order to avoid the jeopardizing of the profit position of the firm.
In inventory, there is an optimum level therefore inadequate inventory causes loss of sale and disrupts the production process while excessive stock level leads to unnecessary carrying cost and obsolescence or spoilage risks.
According to Charles T. Horngren (2007), the optimum inventory. Level lies between the inadequate inventories and the excessive inventories. Inventory management aims at maintaining an optimum inventory level that will be carried at the least cost.
A BRIEF HISTORY OF AMA GREENFIELD BREWERY IN ENUGU STATE, NIGERIA
Ama Greenfield Brewery is the jewell in the crown of Nigeria Breweries Plc and is reputed as one of the most modern Breweries. Precisely on Friday October 24, 2003, the much talked about Nigeria Breweries Plc’s ultra modern Ama Greenfield Brewery located in Enugu state was officially commissioned. It is Nigeria breweries Plc company’s sixth Brewery and the second to be located in Enugu state. The multi-billion naira Ama Brewery boasts of the best cutting edge technology and world class standard
processes. It is located in Umuezeani village in the Amaeke Ngwo community of Udi Local Government Area of Enugu state. Mr. Lassy Agose who was the public relations adviser to the Nigeria Breweries Plc at that time said that Ama Greenfield Brewery has an installed capacity of 3 million
hectoliters per annum or 1 million carton units per week adding that it was also equipped with an ultra modern waste water treatment plant in l ine with safe manufacturing practices world-wide. Ama Brewery whose foundation was laid on April 9,2001 by the then Enugu state Governor, Dr Chimaroke
Nnamani took 14 months to be completed after the actual construction work commenced on January 23, 2002. the first brew was made on march 22nd 2003 while the first bottle of star larger rolled off the bottling line on April 24, 2003.
Ama Greenfield Brewery encapsulates the essential ingredients of the world class vision of the Nigeria Breweries plc and represents another milestone in the company’s journey towards the realization of that vision. Beyond these, Ama Brewery holds enormous socio-economic benefits to the
community, state and country at large. In addition to opening up the communities to commerce and
modernization, the state stands to benefit from increased revenue and the building of international confidence for investment. This multibillion naira investment is also expected to translate into enhanced employment, as well as open the flood gates of business activities and opportunities in the
economy, Mr. Agose stated during a pre-commissioning press briefing in Lagos. Constructed at a cost of N40 billion, it is an essential fulfillment of the pledge made by Heineken NV to invest N70 billion in Nigeria within five years building an ultra-modern civic centre, a borehole and market stalls
for the area.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The problems seen in the course of this study are as follows:-
i. Ineffective management of inventory in the manufacturing company specifically Ama Greenfield Breweries.
ii. Loss of sales or business of the company as a result of insufficient inventories of finished goods.
iii. Low productivity in the manufacturing company as a result of poor inventories model used by the company