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A Geographical Information System (GIS) is a system of hardware, software and procedures to facilitate the management, manipulation, analysis, modeling, representation and display of geo‐referenced data to solve complex problems regarding planning and management of resources. Functions of GIS include data entry, data display, data management, information retrieval and analysis.
The applications of GIS include mapping locations, quantities and densities, finding distances and mapping and monitoring change.
There are mainly three categories of geographic positioning systems to determine or track a user’s location, which have been designed and proposed over the years. These systems are mainly three categories:
Global Positioning System, Wide-area Location System and Indoor Positioning System. Global Positioning System (GPS) receives signals from multiple satellites to determine the
physical location of a user.

The limitation for this system is that it is inefficient for indoor use; alongside in urban areas it often possesses difficulties in receiving signals where high buildings shield the satellite signals.
Wide-area location systems are mainly based on cellular networks that involve measuring the signal strength, the angle of signal arrival and/or the time difference of signal arrival. The
positioning information in wide-area location systems is highly limited by the cell size or cell coverage.
Several approaches have been proposed for indoor location sensing or indoor positioning system such as infrared sensing, radio frequency, ultrasonic and scene capture analysis. There are also a few
technologies to use within indoor areas, such as GPS psudo lite, ultrasonic and cellular-based systems, which need considerable supporting devices and facilities. Each of these methods has their own
advantages and disadvantages. Some are expensive to implement, while others are not very accurate. The Active Badge is the first location system. Radar, well-known approach, is an RF (Radio
Frequency) system for locating and tracking users within large  structures. The approach is an empirical method and a signal propagation model. This procedure determines user location by
combining signal strength measurements with signal propagation models. RF signal strength within building is affected by multipath propagation effects and absorption, resulting in non-linear behavior.

The results show that the empirical method is superior in terms of accuracy with median resolution in the range of about 3m and the signal propagation model has 4.3m accuracy (median), but it makes
deployment easier. The applications of indoor positioning are many, for instance, location-finding, indoor robots, inventory tracking, security, etc.
Geographic Information (GI) represents information that can be associated to a location on Earth, information about nature phenomena, natural, cultural and human resources in general. A GIS
(Geographic Information System) represents an ensemble of hardware-software for capturing stocking, validating, managing, analyzing and visualizing data that have a geographic reference.

Application of Remote Sensing and GIS Function of an Information system is to improve one’s ability to
make decisions. An Information system is a chain of operations starting from planning the observation and collection of data, to store and analysis of the data, to the use of the derived information in some
decision making process. A GIS is an information system that is designed to work with data referenced to spatial or geographic coordinates. GIS is both a database system with specific capabilities
for spatially referenced data, as well as a set of operation for working with data. There are three basic types of GIS applications which might also represent stages of development of a single GIS application.
Inventory Application Many times the first step in developing a GIS application is making an inventory of the features for a given geographic area.
These features are represented in GIS as layers or themes of data. The emphasis at this stage of application development consists of updating and simple data retrieval.

Analysis Application Upon completion of the inventory stage, complex queries on multiple layers can be performed using spatial and spatial analysis techniques.
Management Application More advanced spatial and modeling techniques are required to
support the decisions of managers and policy makers. This involves shifting of emphasis from basic geographic data handling to manipulation, analysis and modeling in order to solve real world
Uses of Coastal GIS Packages
1. Retrieval of information of any specific site.
2. Provision of summary data for planning purpose.
3. Graphical display for educational and public relation exercise.
4. Classification of coasts and management zone.
5. Predicting modeling to determine.
A. Projections of coastal changes.
B. Impacts of individual schemes.
C. Impacts from changes of use.
D. Impacts from natural calamities.

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