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IMPACT OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT ON NIGERIA‟S FOREIGN POLICY: UNDER PRESIDENT GOODLUCK JONATHAN ADMINISTRATION (2011-2015).

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ABSTRACT
This paper examines the impact and nexus between Foreign Policy and Nigeria‟s Economic Development, using President Goodluck Jonathan administration as a case study. As such, it focus on Transformation Agenda (2011-2015) as the Foreign Policy thrust of the administration, in relation to job creation, infrastructure, real sector and governance; income (GDP growth rate), stability of price (inflation and exchange rate), employment rate (job creation), poverty rate and so on as the key sectors for measuring the level of economic development in Nigeria. It postulates bad/weak leadership, corruption, inadequate funding, and insecurity and so on as the main deficit for the weak outcome of Transformation Agenda. This research work adopts the descriptive and analytical approach to examine to examine the economic development of Nigeria under the focused dispensation. The research work is based on System Theory, Soft Power Theory and Sustainable Development Theory, to analyze the methodology employed in achieving Transformation Agenda which was a comprehensive framework for transforming Nigeria to one of the world twenty leading economies by the year 2020.

1.1 BACKGROUND INFORMATION
States all over the world design and implement foreign policies in order to guide their foreign relations as well as protect, promote and defend their vital national interests which could be in areas of trade, strategic and diplomatic interest and whatever a country might consider as its vital national interests so therefore, foreign policy is a reflection of domestic policy, it is the promotion of national interest at international level. To this end, the history of Nigeria foreign policy since 1960 has constantly been changing, though the principles guiding her foreign relations remain the same either under military or civilian regimes in the recent past, because various regimes have tried to pursue the country’s foreign policy under almost the same objectives, the style and vigor of their leadership, agenda setting, mobilization of critical material and immaterial resources have differed with consequent difference in concrete national goal attainments (Nwankwo,2013:213). The principles of Nigeria‟s foreign policy have since independence in 1960 been broadly spelt out in the constitution and has tenaciously guided the conduct of its foreign relations over the years from the first Prime Minister Tafawa Balewa, to the Former Head of State, President Goodluck Jonathan. The principles of Nigeria foreign policy deals with what guides the formulation and actualization of its foreign policy, in other to ensure the survival of the state and its values in the course of its relations with other actors especially states in the international system. In the speeches of Nigeria‟s first Prime Minister Sir Tafawa Balewa, to the Federal House of Representatives and the United Nations General Assembly on 20th August and 7th October 1960 respectively, he enunciated the general principles which would guide the country‟s foreign policy (Review of Nigeria‟s Foreign Policy; 2012, P289).
The principles which have imbued Nigerians foreign policy since independence include the following; protection of the sovereignty and territorial integrity of the Nigerian state, promotion of the socio-economic well-being of Nigeria, enhancing Nigeria‟s image and status in the world at large, respect for the sovereignty and territorial integrity of other states, non-interference in the internal affairs of other states, promotion of unity and solidarity of African states; total political, economic, social and cultural emancipation and rejuvenation of Africa, an unflinching commitment to the liberation of countries still under colonial rule, as well as the removal of remaining vestiges of colonialism in Africa (Nigeria at the United Nations; Partnership for a Better World 1991: P29). However, foreign policy in the contemporary world has taken a completely new shape, the foreign policy of a state in today‟s world must consider issues such as; production, exchange, technology, markets, economic development, political stability and predictability, prevailing leadership and its qualities which are prerequisites for effective foreign policy-making process, this implies the need for a shift in paradigm of Nigeria‟s foreign policy principles in respect to the dynamics that will shape the formulation and actualization of the foreign policy objectives of Nigeria and prior to this, the advent of democratic government in 1999 in which section 19 of the 1999 constitution states that, foreign policy principles shall be; promotion of a just world economic order among others (Review of Nigeria‟s Foreign Policy; 2012, P289). Also, with the advent of democratization, as well as the eradication of apartheid and racism in the continent of Africa in early 20th century as well as the declining economic setbacks brought about the change in Nigeria‟s foreign policy focus which led to the emergence of economic diplomacy aimed at strengthening Nigeria‟s economic interest, promoting and protecting the country‟s national interest, has become a significant priority of the Nigeria foreign policy.
They have been a number of visions, programs and policies pursued by various heads of government of Nigeria, either under the military or civilian regimes which is directed towards………..

1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
Nigeria government is characterized by an inconsistent foreign policy which has made her a scorn in the committee of nations; this has led to the question on how to manage the foreign policy of Nigeria to serve her domestic economic development interest. It is against this backdrop that Transformation Agenda was formulated as the foreign policy thrust of the present administration, in which Nigeria‟s economy has grown very fast in the last few years making her the largest economy in Africa. However, the challenge before the government is how to move the nation away from an oil-dominated economy, institute the basics for a private-sector driven economy, build the local economy on international best practices, and transform the passive oil industry to a more pro-active one and restructure the country along the lines of a more decentralized federalism.
The problem being looked into in this research is the Economic Developmental problem facing Nigeria since independence. There are various problems related to the development of Nigeria Economy. This paper identifies the following factors;
Bad Governance; these element pose a serious problem in Nigeria. These phenomenon are encompassed by the absence of a ruling class (leadership) dedicated to the pursuit of economic & societal development which will strengthen state institutions and democratize the society. As argued by Dr. John Akude;
“The rulers of most African states are not interested in pursuing economic development. They use power to amass wealth which makes the personalization and misuse of power inevitable. Personal power thwarts institutionalization and has weakening effects on the state”(Akude, 2007).
As such, bad leadership has often proved to be a source of development impediment in Nigeria owing to embezzlements of public funds which has hindered governments role in refurbishing basic infrastructures such as transportation which would have enhanced easy mobility as well as attract foreign investors through improve power supply. Nigeria leaders are more interested in filling their bank accounts than ensuring the general welfare of the populace to which they have been sworn to serve. These leaders indirectly and directly propagate corruption, conflict, ethnic & religious divide as well as the Institutional failure of bureaucracies within the various countries.
Corruption: Corruption is the perversion of integrity or state of affairs through bribery, favor or moral depravity. It takes place when at least two parties have interacted to change the structure or process of society or the behavior of functionaries in order to produce dishonest, unfaithful or defiled situations. Nigeria politicians are regarded as corrupt, Trillions of Nigeria‟s wealth have been siphoned continuously, and deposited in European, North American banks. Some of these wealth‟s are in those continents in form of properties and assets. Examples of such leaders include; General Sani Abacha. In other words, Nigeria leaders are corrupt, but their corrupt practices are backed also by the Western financial institutions.
Equally, Nigeria‟s growth is sectorally concentrated as 90 percent of economic activity and growth come from three or four sectors (oil, crops, trading, and real estate), as well as regionally concentrated, the remaining 29 or 30 sectors account for only ten to 20percent of economic growth and activity, including telecoms, manufacturing, banking, insurance, construction and all the other big name sectors and thus diversifying the economy becomes a serious problem for the success of the Transformation Agenda.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
Specifically, the study seeks to achieve the following objectives;
1. To provide a detailed analysis on the implementation, achievements and limitations of the Transformation Agenda as a foreign policy thrust of President Goodluck Jonathan.

2. To investigate the nexus between foreign policy and economic development with emphasize on the foreign policy objectives of Nigeria under President Goodluck Jonathan.
3. To show the current economy development of Nigeria using Macroeconomics framework factors in the duration of the Transformation Agenda as the Foreign Policy Thrust of President Jonathan Administration.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1. To what extent has the Transformation Agenda as a foreign policy thrust of President Goodluck Jonathan contributed to the welfare of the Nigeria state and people, as to hope of the dreams embodied in vision 20:2020?
2. Are they nexus between Foreign Policy and Economic Development in correlation to Transformation Agenda as the Foreign Policy Thrust of President Goodluck Jonathan?
3. What is the relationship between Foreign Policy and Economic Development in relation with the personality of President Goodluck Jonathan?
1.5 SIGNIFICANT OF STUDY
This study is very important for certain reason which are;
1. First, the study interrogates the foreign policy initiatives of Nigeria under President Goodluck Jonathan. How far, so far?

2. Secondly, the study is of paramount importance to decision makers and the would-be diplomats for it traces the foreign policy thrust of economic development of some past Nigeria leaders with an insight into the present.
3. It brings to light the gradual but definite transformation going on in Nigeria‟s contemporary foreign policy arena in relation to economic growth in line with Vision 2020.
4. It provides an insight or analysis on the achievements, limitations, and challenges of the transformation agenda as the foreign policy trust of President Goodluck Jonathan administration.
5. It provides an insight into the nexus between the Personality of a Leader, Foreign Policy and National Economic Transformation in line with achieving Nigeria Vision 20:20.
1.6 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
The research methodology to be used in this paper includes the descriptive and analytical methods. The method of data collection used for this study is the secondary data, which involves the use of sources such as; the Internet, Newspapers, Textbooks, E-books, Journals, Magazines, Annual Reports and other data collection avenues relevant to the study.
1.7 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The scope of this study covers the planned course of action of the Transformation Agenda of President Goodluck Jonathan, with focus on 2011 to 2015 which is the duration of the administration.

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