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ORGANIZATIONAL CLIMATE, WORK-FAMILY CONFLICT AND RESILIENCE AS PREDICTORS OF ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOUR AND TURNOVER INTENTIONS AMONG TELECOMMUNICATION WORKERS
Successful organisations have employees who go beyond their formal job responsibilities and freely give of their time and energy to succeed at the assigned job. Such behaviour is neither prescribed nor required, yet it contributes to the smooth functioning of the organisation. An organisation cannot survive or prosper without their members behaving as good citizens by engaging in positive behaviours. Because of the importance of good citizenship for organisations, understanding the nature and sources of organisational citizenship behaviour (OCB) has long been a high priority for organisational scholars and this takes us to the concept of organisational citizenship behaviour (Podsakoff, Whiting, Podsakoff & Blume, 2009).
In the increasingly dynamic and competitive environment in which organisations operate, this discretionary behaviour, not formally recognized or rewarded, termed Organisational Citizenship Behaviour (OCB) is considered a highly valuable contribution to the effective functioning of an organisation. Organisational behaviour provides knowledge to managers on the understanding of employees’ behavior for the purpose of eliciting cooperation from them in order to achieve organisation’s objective. One of the contributing behaviour which is rather discretionary but proven empirically to increase organisational functioning is organisation citizenship behaviour (OCB). It refers to various forms of cooperation and helpfulness to others that support the organisation’s social and psychological context.
These behaviours are discretional which are not parts of the job description, and are performed by the employee as a result of personal choice. Organisational citizenship behaviour (OCB) is a term that encompasses anything positive and constructive that employees do, of their own volition, which supports co-workers and benefits the company. Typically, employees who frequently engage in OCB may not always be the top performers (though they could be, as task performance is related to OCB), but they are the ones who are known to ‘go the extra mile’ or ‘go above and beyond’ the minimum efforts required to do a merely satisfactory job. Organisation will benefit from encouraging employees to engage in OCB, because it has been shown to increase productivity, efficiency and customer satisfaction, and reduce costs and rates of turnover and absenteeism (Podsakoff, Whiting, Podsakoff & Blume, 2009).
Though OCB is a spontaneous initiative taken by staff, organisations promote OCB in the workplace through employee motivation, as well as giving employees the opportunity to display OCB; that is, creating a workplace environment that not only allows for, but is conducive and supportive of OCB (Organ, Podsakoff & MacKenzie, 2006).
According to Organ (1988), OCB is defined as work-related behaviours that are discretionary, not related to the formal organisational reward system and in aggregate, promote the effective functioning of the organisation. In addition, OCB extends beyond the performance indicators required by an organisation in a formal job description. Moreover, OCB reflects those actions performed by employees that surpass the minimum role requirements expected by the organisation and promote the welfare of co-workers, work groups, and/or the organisation (Lovell, Kahn, Anton, Davidson, Dowling, Post & Mason, 1999).
Furthermore, Organisational Citizenship Behaviour (OCB) is a construct that enjoins employees to willingly exceed or go beyond their formal and principal job requirements (Organ & Ryan, 1995). The increasing downsizing and complexity of jobs suggests that there is more to do in the workplace and fewer people to do it than ever before. In today’s dynamic workplace, flexibility and innovativeness is increasingly becoming critical especially in most service oriented organisations (Robbins, 2003). As suggested by Organ (1988), the effective functioning of an organisation depends on employee efforts that extend beyond formal role requirements.
A distinction has been made between two dimensions of employee behaviour: (1) general compliance (doing what a good employee should do), and (2) altruism (helping specific others) (see Smith et al., 1983; Bateman & Organ, 1983). Later, the concept underwent a number of transformations. For instance, in a review of the research, Organ (1988) identified five distinct dimensions of OCB: Altruism (helping specific others); civic virtue (keeping up with important matters within the organisation); conscientiousness (compliance with norms); courtesy (consulting others before taking action); and sportsmanship (not complaining about trivial matters). However, Organ (1997) further classified OCB dimensions into three parts: helping, courtesy, and conscientiousness. A different view on the dimensionality of OCB came from Williams and Anderson (1991), who divided OCB into two types: (1) behaviours directed at specific individuals in the organisation, such as courtesy and altruism (OCBI); and (2) behaviours concerned with benefiting the organisation as a whole, such as conscientiousness, sportsmanship and civic virtue (OCBO). The present study employs these two dimensions of OCB to achieve the research objective.
OCBI refers to the behaviours that immediately benefit specific individuals within an organisation and, thereby, contribute indirectly to organisational effectiveness (Williams & Anderson, 1991). Podsakoff et al. (2000) labeled this dimension as helping behaviour and defined it as voluntarily helping others with work-related problems. While other researchers have addressed this category of behaviour in a number of ways, all are similar to Williams and Anderson’s (1991) definition of OCBI.
The second dimension of OCB includes behaviours benefiting the organisation without actions aimed specifically toward any organisational member or members (e.g., adhering to informal rules, volunteering for committees). Podsakoff et al. (2000) labeled this organisational compliance as it involves an internalization of a company’s rules and policies. Furthermore, Williams and Anderson (1991) defined it as behaviours that benefit the organisation in general. These behaviours include giving prior notice regarding an absence from work or informally adhering to rules designed to maintain order.
The various dimensions of OCB differ in their antecedents. For example; OCB-I was reported to be predicted by concern for others and interpersonal justice, while OCB-O was seen to be predicted by reward-equity, recognition and procedural justice (McNeely & Meglino, 1994; Masterson, Lewis, Goldman & Taylor, 2001).
Furthermore, impression management motive and prosocial values motives have been observed to predict OCB-I more than it does for OCB-O, while organisational concern motive have been observed to predict OCB-O more than it does for OCB-I (Bolino, 1999; Rioux & Peneer, 2011). Finally, various dimensions of OCB are of different levels i.e. OCB-I and OCB-O represents individual-level and organisational-level behaviour respectively. Podsakoff, Blume, Whiting and Podsakoff (2009) reported that individual-level and organisational-level behaviour relate differently with some organisational variables, while individual-level behaviour relate to performance appraisal rating, reward distribution and allocation among employees, organisational-level behaviour relate to employee efficiency, organisational turnover and productivity among employees.
Employees are key asset for any organisation thus organisations that can successfully retain their human resources have an advantage over organisations that cannot. Consequently, attracting and retaining employees has emerged as one of the most important and crucial challenges facing organisations today. The failure to manage workforce attrition is costly and organisations have become more proactive in introducing strategies aimed at retaining employees. Regardless of individual industry, the turnover of employees makes it difficult to secure a work force and costs companies enormous expenses to recruit, hire and train new personnel. Furthermore, to remain competitive in the rapidly expanding global economy and to keep pace with technological advances requires a workforce with robust institutional knowledge; therefore, employee retention is of great importance to business and academic communities (Benko & Weisberg, 2007; Becker, 2007; The Future of Work 2020, 2007). Based on this assumption, it becomes imperative for organisations to work assiduously to prevent employees’ turnover intentions or actual turnover.
Intention to leave and actual turnover are often highly co-related. For this reason, researchers usually use intent to leave as a proxy for turnover. Price and Mueller (1981) developed a model of turnover which proposes that intention to leave is influenced mostly by role related characteristics, facility characteristics, turnover opportunities and job characteristics. Mobley (1977) classified the cause and correlates of turnover into a simple model, which presents the determinants into external economy and mostly organisational variables. The research on employee’s intention to leave however is zooming in at organisational level. One of the organisational variables used is organisational climate which potentially correlates with intention to leave and actual turnover. Employees tend to leave organisations that endure unfavorable work climate as every organisation needs human capital resources to function, when an employee(s) leaves, this can have a variety of effects that not only impact on the organisation but also the individual employee and the wider society (Mobley, 1977). The effects can be positive or negative pending on how the situation pans out. In furtherance to this, a greater understanding of the process of labour turnover can multiply the degree to which the organisation and employees within the organisation can influence these effects. Turnover “as an individual motivated choice behaviour” has been a widely studied variable which as well interest my research on it though not all types of turnover are negative. Voluntary turnover that is dysfunctional and unavoidable can be very costly for any organisation.
Turnover intention and actual turnover has been of interest for both managers and scholars as the pressure for financial performance among private organisations has increased. Hence, a theoretical causal process was proposed to explain this phenomenon. The main antecedent and predictor of employees turnover is organisational climate. Turnover intention and actual turnover are reactions to organisational climate or perceived work environment by employees.
Dissatisfaction with work condition and the belief that an organisation lacks promotion opportunities, good string benefits/remuneration, career opportunities, welfare package and job security can be interpreted which is dependent on how the employee perceived his job and career expectations thus could lead to turnover intention. On the other hand, management must spend time to understand how each worker interprets his/her job and when there is a significant difference between what one sees and what exists, try to eliminate distortions.
Retaining valuable employees is one of the most important issues for competitive organisations today as employees are the most valuable asset in any company. Employee turnover has been the trend in most telecom organizations and the issue of staff retention has continued to plague in the industry.
Turnover intention is a conscious and deliberate willingness to leave the organisation. Tett and Meyer (1993) view turnover intention as one’s propensity to leave an organisation, which leads to skilled employee shortages and affects organisation outcomes. Evidently perception affects the way we behave and how the employee perceives the workplace affects the way they react to their job. When their perception is towards the positive route, they give all the best to the job and remain happy and tend to neglect the job or become less productive, withdrawn, when the perception is on the negative part.
In conclusion, Atkinson and Lefferts (1972) noted that the frequency with which people thought about quitting their job was significantly related to actual termination. Conceptual and actual turnover intentions provide strong support for the proposition that behavioral intentions constituted the most immediate determinant of actual behaviour (turnover).
As today’s businesses continue to struggle to survive or acquire sustainable competitive advantage, it is important for organisations to better understand the factors that influence employees and important employee-oriented work outcomes. The growing significance placed on understanding employees and their behaviour within the organisation has produced a great deal of interest in investigating employee perceptions of climate within the organisation. Work environment or climate perception of employees has significant consequences for both individuals and organisations. Climate or atmosphere in workplace has impact on employee’s motivation, behaviour, attitudes and potentials, which, in turn is predicted to influence organisational productivity (Adenike, 2011). In other words, the climate or the organisational climate is considered very important in the life of organisations due to its clear effects and relations to various regulatory activities. It affects employees’ satisfaction and performance and, thus, the success of the organisation and its ability to continue (Al-Saudi, 2012). For these reasons, organisational climate has been a topic of considerable research over the last thirty years, both theoretically and empirically (Dawson et al., 2009).
Organizational climate is defined as the set of characteristics that describe an organisation and that distinguishes the organisation from other organisations and influences the behavior of people in the organisation (Farooqui, 2012). Organisational climate attempts to identify the environment that affects the behavior of the employees and due to the organisational climate importance on employee’s attitudes and behaviours, researches increasing attention in organisational behaviour literature (Holloway, 2012).
Organisational climate is essentially a perceived state of operation thus can be thought of as the way employees describe an organisational environment to themselves and interpret what they find. However, because this is wrapped up with experience, it impacts on attitude which results to behavioural implications. An inference of example with an autocratic management style could result in an antagonistic organisational climate that creates friction between employees and their employers, which the resultant effect could be withdrawal from the work place and continual replacement. The nature of organisational climate differs from one organisation to another as organisational climate serves as a measure of individual perceptions or feelings about an organisation.
Organisational Climate (OC) can be defined as employee’s perceptions of what the organisation is like in terms of practices, policies, procedures, routines and rewards. In a sense, organisational climate focuses on how organisational participants experience and make sense of their organisations. Climate as a concept does exemplify understanding the psychological phenomena in organizations. Organisational climate can stated to be a reflection of the way that employee and managers see each other and this takes account of the idea that once it is formed, climate can be extremely resistant to modification. This results that when one party perceives that the other behaves in a particular way, the recipient tends to respond accordingly, which in turn evokes perception and behaviour in turn and if it is hostile, this pans out an extremely frosty atmosphere, where each side can undermine the other and this at times leads to turnover intention and actual turnover. Individuals base their behaviour not on the way their external environment actually is but the way they see or believe their environment to be, that is perceptual. Furthermore, employees’ judge issues such as fair play for work performance, remuneration, incentives, appraisals and the adequacy of working conditions about their job in a favorable light. Thus in order to influence productivity, positive attitude to work and reduce turnover intentions and actual turnover, assessment of workers perception to their work place and job is paramount.
Organisational climate is the shared perceptions of and the meaning attached to the policies, practices, and procedures employees experience and the behaviours they observe getting rewarded and that are supported and expected (Ostroff et al. 2003, Schneider & Reichers 1983, Schneider et al. 2011). On the other hand, organisational culture may be defined as the shared basic assumptions, values, and beliefs that characterize a setting and are taught to newcomers as the proper way to think and feel, communicated by the myths and stories people tell about how the organisation came to be the way it is as it solved problems associated with external adaptation and internal integration (Schein, 2010, Trice & Beyer 1993; Zohar & Hofmann, 2012). Until the past two decades or so there have also been significant differences in the methods used to study climate and culture, with the former having been characterized by employee surveys and the latter by qualitative case studies. A historical review of the climate and culture literatures, however, reveals that culture recently has been much more often studied using surveys, and the issues addressed can both overlap and be considerably different from the issues addressed via climate surveys (Schneider et al., 2011; Zohar & Hofmann, 2012).
Organisational climate is influenced by and shapes organisational culture (Hunt & Ivergard, 2007). Organisational culture is more defined than organisational climate; thus organisational culture is a broader pattern of its beliefs and stems from employees’ interpretations of the assumptions, philosophies and values that produces the experienced climate within an organisation (Brown & Brooks, 2002). Organisational climate is a manifestation of the organisation’s culture; it is the here and now (Sowpow, 2006). Organisational climate attempts to identify the environment that affects the behaviour of the employees. It deals with the way(s) employees make sense out of their environment (Reichers & Schneider, 1990). It is primarily learned through the socialization process and through symbolic interactions among the organisation’s members. If the shared perceptions of practices and procedures change or differ in any way, then the results of these changes or differences could produce a different organisational climate (Muchinsky, 1976).
Employees today are more likely than ever to be concerned with how to balance their work and family lives. Competing demands, which arise between work and personal roles, often result in conflict for employees. Furthermore, changes in the demographic make-up of the workforce have been the primary impetus for the increased focus on work and family issues. The entry of women, dual earner couples, and single parents in the workforce underlie some of the most significant trends (Googins, 1991; Googins, GriYn, & Casey, 1994; Parasuraman & Greenhaus, 1997; Zedeck, 1992). Simultaneous to these changes, businesses are experiencing rapid changes. Increased global competition, focus on customer service, and technological advances (which increase an employee’s access to work) contribute to stress for both employees and employers in this highly competitive business world (Parasuraman & Greenhaus, 1997).
Family and work represent two of the most important aspects of adult life. Each of these variables contributes uniquely to our understanding of human behaviour in the work place. Although researchers have examined both variables theoretically and empirically, traditionally the examination of these two crucial domains has been conducted independently of each other. However, researchers have long speculated that these two variables are related, and have since found that this relationship have emerged in the form of conflict thus the concept of family-work conflict will be further discussed more elaborately.
Family-Work role conflict has been defined as “a form of inter-role conflict in which role pressures from the work and family domains are mutually incompatible in some respect” (Flippo, 2005). The conflict occurs when the employee extends their efforts to satisfy their work demands at the expense of their family demands or vice versa (Cole, 2004). Conflict could arise from family interfering with the work activities, such as keeping late night to attend to family issues/chores or from family demands when there is illness with a family member. A significant amount of research has concluded that family-work conflict and work-family conflict are related but distinct constructs (Ajiboye, 2008). Work-family conflict is primarily caused by excessive work demands and predicts negative family outcomes, whereas family-work conflict is primarily determined by family demands and predicts negative work outcomes (Adebola, 2005). Therefore, if an employee is experiencing high levels of family-work role conflict, their roles and responsibilities in family life are interfering with the work domain. Meanwhile, because the employee is more committed to the welfare of the family, this will take priority, reducing or minimizing the resources of time and energy being able to be spending in the work domain. Thus, employees who experience high family role conflict should experience less affective commitment to the organization. However, work-to-family conflict occurs when the domain of work interferes with the family demands and vice versa for work-family conflict (Ajiboye, 2008).
In Greenhaus and Boutell’s study (Willis, O’Conner, & Smith, 2008) family-work conflict is defined as a consequence of inconsistent demands between the roles at work and in the family. In other words, family-work conflict exists when the expectations related to a certain role do not meet the requirements of the other role, preventing the efficient performance of that role (Greenhaus, Tammy & Spector, 2006). Therefore, it could be said that the conflict between family and work domains tends to stem from the conflict between the roles of employees. Several studies reveal that family and work are not two separate domains as they are highly interdependent, having a dynamic relation with one another. While family life is affected by the factors at work, the reverse is also experienced (Trachtenberg, Anderson & Sabatelli, 2009; Namasivayam & Zhao, 2007). In furtherance to the above, work-family conflict occurs when experiences at work interfere with family life like extensive, irregular or inflexible work hours, work overload and other forms of job stress, interpersonal conflicts at work, extensive travel, career transitions, unsupportive supervisor or organization. For instance, an unexpected meeting late in the day or a breakdown of the factory production machine may prevent a parent from attending the child’s graduation party.
Balancing family and work is a challenge in an adult’s life. The increase in dual-career couples and single-parent households and the decrease in traditional, single-earner families mean that responsibilities for work, housework, and childcare are no longer confined to traditional gender roles (Byron, 2005). Further, employees find themselves struggling to juggle the competing demands of family and work. The excessive pressure and scarcity of free time may adversely affect their ability to cope. This can lead to dissatisfaction, absenteeism, poor personal relations, and decreased work performance (Davidson & Cooper, 1992; O’Laughlin & Bischoff, 2005). Furthermore researches have shown that work roles are more likely to interfere with family roles than family roles are likely to interfere with work roles.
How people deal with difficult events, situations, challenges that change their lives vary from one individual to another as they react to such circumstances with a flood of strong emotions and a sense of uncertainty as the case maybe. However people generally adapt well over time to life-changing situations and stressful conditions. What enables them to adapt to situations of life involve the factor of resilience. Resilience is defined as an individual’s ability to properly adapt to stress and adversity. Stress and adversity can come in the shape of family or relationship problems, health problems, or workplace and financial stressors, among others. Individuals demonstrate resilience when they can face difficult experiences and rise above them with ease. Resilience is not a rare ability; in reality, it is found in the average individual and it can be learned and developed by virtually anyone. Resilience should be considered a process, rather than a trait to be had. There is a common misconception that people who are resilient experience no negative emotions or thoughts and display optimism in all situations. Contrary to this misconception, the reality remains that resiliency is demonstrated within individuals who can effectively and relatively easily navigate their way around crises and utilize effective methods of coping. In other words, people who demonstrate resilience are people with positive emotionality; they are keen to effectively balance negative emotions with positive ones (Lazarus, 1993)
Aldwin, (2000) resilience is composed of particular factors attributed to an individual. There are numerous factors, which cumulatively contribute to a person’s resilience. The primary factor in resilience is having positive relationships inside or outside one’s family. It is the single most critical means of handling both ordinary and extraordinary levels of stress. These positive relationships include traits such as mutual, reciprocal support and caring. Such relationships aid in bolstering a person’s resilience. Studies show that there are several other factors which develop and sustain a person`s resilience:
- The ability to make realistic plans and being capable of taking the steps necessary to follow through with them
- A positive self-concept and confidence in one’s strengths and abilities
- Communication and problem-solving skills
- The ability to manage strong impulses and feelings
These factors are not necessarily inherent; they can be developed in any individual and they promote resiliency. Resilience is generally thought of as a “positive adaptation” after a stressful or adverse situation. In other words, resilience is one’s ability to bounce back from a negative experience. The Children Institute explains that, “resilience research is focused on studying those who engage in life with hope and humor despite devastating losses.” It is important to note that resilience is not only about overcoming a deeply stressful situation, but also coming out of the said situation with “competent functioning”. Resiliency allows a person to rebound from adversity as a strengthened and more resourceful person. Stress comes from many different sources in our lives. Stress can come from normal changes in our lives (birth of a child), unexpected events (winning the lottery or death of a loved one), developments in the world around us (poverty or crime), and daily hassles (traffic or waiting in line). No matter the stressor at hand resiliency allows an individual to adapt and prosper. Since the 1960-70’s resilience has become a more popular topic of discussion as researchers have become more aware of the implications of positive psychology. Resiliency is often defined in terms of negative, which is more of a traditional psychology method. However, resiliency also focuses on the potential for growth, which follows along with positive psychology methods.
Resilience has been shown to be more than just the capacity of individuals to cope well under adversity. Resilience is better understood as the opportunity and capacity of individuals to navigate their way to psychological, social, cultural and physical resources that may sustain their well-being, and their opportunity and capacity individually and collectively to negotiate for these resources to be provided and experienced in culturally meaningful ways. Effective functioning of an organisation, team work and good working relationship amongst employees are forms of productive behaviour. This behaviour is discretional which are not part of the job description, and are performed by the employee as a result of personal choice (Lazarus, 1993).
Statement of Problem
The review and update of staff strength carried out monthly and annually portrays the fact that a lot of staff have moved from one telecommunication company to another while majority of them moved to other sectors of the economy including government parastals. However, reports and statistics have shown that the telecom industry is one of the sectors in the economy that is very viable, lucrative and tend to pay their workers higher than most other sectors apart from the oil and gas sector and a few others. This reaction prompts a reaction in which people beginning to investigate the reason why most workers in the telecommunication industry seek alternative job positions despite the variability of the sector.
In furtherance to this, it has raises a strong curiosity and eagerness to ascertain the possible reasons for such behaviours. Most people have debated that most telecom companies lack career part and opportunities to climb the hierarchy of positions to top management. Others argue that telecom workers seem to experience family-work conflict due to the demands of their family, while others say the sector lacks job security. Evidences show that there is a huge gap in the salary structure of senior staff and junior staff, most staffs are promoted but the salary not upgraded in line with their new job function. To this end, it has be seen that the work environment (organisational climate) does not encourage staff going the extra mile or going out of the scope of the roles to set the company on the next level. This singular action has promoted employees to seek new jobs that is to say that the organizational climate found in the telecommunication companies fuels employees intentions to leave their job.
The GSM telecom industry in Nigeria is full of competitions, innovations, technology advancement, branding, new breeds of products, services and its modifications etc. These trends of events tend to reposition the service providers when compared to their compatriots abroad or in advance countries and as well match competitions amongst service providers pan Nigeria. The challenges created by this recent development in the sector may have increased the rate of family-work conflicts experienced by telecom workers. These changes have equally built a brick wall on employees working conditions as workers are always on the road travelling for various trainings, seminars, meeting or the other. Nowadays, it is not unheard off to see telecom workers engaging in various road show campaign, indoor and outdoor aggressive marketing, under selling, giving of customer incentives at personal expense just to meet set targets. Conventionally, this is outside the scope of their job, but because of the lack of job security in the organisation, they are left with no choice other than go the extra miles to meet set targets and preserve their jobs, which most often create anxiety and concern for employees depending on one’s adaptive pattern or resilient skills of the individual.
The increase in job functions and working outside the scope of job descriptions propelled by recent challenges and trend of development, telecom workers have resorted to waking up from bed very early to enable them attend to house chores and play their family roles thus depriving themselves adequate sleep/rest which affect their productivity during work time. Most staff leaves office once work time is over without finishing their day-day work load in order to catch up with family activities. Working during weekends and even on Sundays has not made life so pleasurable for most workers as most staff come to work to enable them finish up what they have left over. Indirectly most workers are unable to participate in social life and religious activities, most have even lost close friends and are unable to give adequate parental care to their children, the consequences cannot be over emphasized. These consequences have resulted in the look for alternative job as to reduce the conflict that exist in ones work life and other life activities. Going by this, the telecom industry are faced with the employees attitude to work and high rate of turnover intentions, thus confronted with the challenge of loosing important and helpful employees in the organisation without realizing that the organisational climate or the way employees perceive their workplace, pressure from family members, peer group and the extent to which an employee can adapt to situations, stress and work pressure contributes to the employees intentions to turn over. The detrimental effect of high turnover rate on the telecom industry is a major cause for concern among human resource practitioners. Students of organisational behaviour have found many reasons for turnover of employees.
Organisational climate has been viewed as a possible reason because of the way it has been found to influence the behavior of the employees. Organisational climate is a set of characteristics that makes an organisation’s work environment unique. According to Liou and Cheng these characteristics are enduring over time implying that the organisational members would be subjected to its effect considerably. Litwin and Stringer, (1968) and Pritchard and Karasick, (1973) also proposed that since organisational climate is the subjective perception of employees of the work environment in their organisation, it is linked to their work attitude formation. Studies by Ohly and Fritz, (2010) show that work environment can play a significant role in influencing the behaviour of the employees. Therefore, organisational climate could influence an employee’s work-based outcome. The climate of an organisation for example career path, policies, welfare packages etc contributes to employee’s perception about the company. The perception of the employee about the company is a determinant of the individual’s behaviour. In an organisation where hard work, promotions, monetary rewards are given on merit rather than favoritisms, employees tend to be of more a good citizen. In the telecommunication industry, pockets of argument has revealed reward most times are given to those in the good books of their bosses and this has lead to negative attitude to work.
Research by Russel et al, (2010), found that organisational climate to be associated with turnover intention. The works by Subramaniam, (2005) and that of Donoghue, (2010) found that a positive organisational climate contributes toward a decrease in intention to leave. Intention to leave and actual turnover are often highly correlated. This is the reason why researchers often use intent to leave as a proxy for turnover. While there have been studies on the relationship between organisational climate and turnover intention, they differ in their conceptualization of organisational climate, study setting and study variables.
For example a research conducted by Subramaniam, (2005) linked the relationship between organisational learning, organisational innovation and organisational climate in the Australian ICT industry. However, there are no known researches done to understand the staff’s perception of organisational climate in the hotels and resorts belonging to an Asian-based hotel operator and its relationship to turnover intention using the operational definition of organisational climate by Stringer. The dimension of organisational climate as proposed by Stringer seems appropriate to the hotel work environment.
It is result oriented and imperative employees that go out of the organisational norms, personal schedule and job responsibilities to assist fellow employee to achieve company goals and objective. However in the telecommunication industry, the issue of good citizenship has been questioned owing to the fact that the work environment does not promote such. This is consequent upon resultant the fact that individuals are faced with enormous task which is hardly achieved or attained and time to offer assistance to a fellow employee is more or less not seen. Furthermore, in the telecom industry its highly digitalized/computerized and giving out personal administrative password could lead to fraud thus individuals are more or less not willing to seek for help at extreme work conditions. These have lead to some employees seeking alternative employment, resignation, keeping late night at work which has negatively impacted on personal/family life especially for staff that is unable to handle the pressure or cope with it.
Purpose of Study
The sole purpose of this study is to critically examine the predicting effects of organisational climate, family-work conflict and resilience on organisational climate behaviour and turnover intentions using data collected from employees in the telecom industry. Furthermore the research work will help contribute towards the contemporary issue of human resource management practice in Globacom and other companies as it applies to them. Specifically, the purpose of this study includes examining whether:
Organisational climate will predict organisational citizenship behaviour and turnover intentions among telecommunication workers.
Family-Work conflict will predict organisational citizenship behaviour and turnover intentions among telecommunication workers.
Resilience will predict organisational citizenship behaviour and turnover intentions among telecommunication workers.
Operational Definition of Terms
Organizational Citizenship Behaviour refers to the employees to willing exceed or go beyond their formal and principal job requirement as measured by organisational citizenship behaviour scale (Onyishi 2007).
Turnover intention refers to the subjective perception of an organizational member to quit the current job for other opportunities as measured by turnover intention scale (Irving, Coleman & Cooper 1997).
Organizational Climate refers to as employee’s perceptions of what the organization is like in terms of practices, policies, procedures, routines and rewards as measured by Organizational Climate scale (Pena-Suarez, Muniz, Campillo-Alvarez, Fonseca-Pedrero, & Garcia-Cueto, 2013).
Family-Work Conflict refers to as a form of inter-role conflict in which family pressure interferes with the quality of work as measured by Family-Work Conflict scale (Carlson, Kacmar & Williams, 2000).
Resilience refers to as an individual’s ability to properly adapt to stress, adversity, sustaining and bouncing back and even beyond to attain success as measured by resilience scale (McLarnon & Rothstein, 2013).