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TEACHING AND LEARNING NEEDS FOR FAMILY LIFE AND HIV EDUCATION CURRICULUM IMPLEMENTATION OF SECONDARY SCHOOLS

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CHAPTER ONE

 

Introduction

 

Background to the Study  

The structure of the Nigerian Population in the early 1980s brought about the emergence of the population and family life education (POP&FLE) programme, which the Nigerian Educational Research and Development Council (NERDC) has worked hard on the implementation in Nigeria to date. However, the resolutions and programme of action of the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) made it imperative that emphasis should now be on Reproductive Health including family planning and sexual health amongst other issues of human population. Furthermore, the global concern and the recent scourge of HIV and AIDS in Nigeria brought to the fore the urgent need to deal with adolescent reproductive health issues without further delay. In 1998 for instance, 60 per cent of all reported cases of HIV and AIDS came from the age group 15-24 years, who constitute more than 50 per cent of the national population (NERDC, 2003). In order to vigorously mainstream HIV and AIDS prevention in schools, the sexuality education curriculum had to be reviewed and redesignated as Family Life and HIV Education (FLHE) curriculum for primary, secondary and tertiary levels of education in Nigeria.  In essence, the directive of the 49th session of the National Council on Education (NCE) in September 2002 which authorized total inclusiveness of state concerns about culturally acceptable humanity gave rise to FLHE curriculum(NERDEC,2003).

The FLHE curriculum is structured in such a way that it provides a framework for the acquisition of knowledge of self and family living from childhood to adulthood (NERDC, 2003).  According to NERDC, FLHE curriculum also reflects a comprehensive approach to HIV prevention education from primary to tertiary levels of education.  NERDC further stated that the curriculum is organized around six components:  such as human development, personal skills, sexual health, sexual behaviour and society and culture. Each theme covers knowledge, attitude and the necessary skills that are age appropriate.  International Women Health Coalition.- IWHC, (2003) stated that FLHE curriculum theme is learner oriented as the many activities are geared toward making learning practical and pupil centered.  IWHC posited that the content to be learnt are spirally arranged so that there is continuity and rising depth of content as the students move from one level to the other.  The report further explained that the curriculum as structured will lead to the comprehensive coverage of the topics listed, leading to the achievement of intended learning outcomes for FLHE.

FLHE is an educational programme designed to assist young people in their physical, emotional and moral development (International Planned Parenthood- IPP, 1998).  The report revealed that FLHE prepares secondary school students for adulthood and ageing, as well as their social relationships in the family and society.  FLHE is a planned process of education that fosters the acquisition of factual information, formation of positive attitudes, beliefs and values, development of skills to cope with the biological, socio-cultural and spiritual aspects of human living (NERDC, 2003). NERDC listed the main goal of FLHE as the promotion of preventive education by providing learners with opportunities to develop a positive and factual view of self, acquire the information and skills needed to take care of their health and prevention of HIV and AIDS.  According to the report, it is also to respect and value themselves and others and to develop skills to make healthy decisions about their sexual health and behaviour.  Global Health Awareness and Research Foundation – GARF (2005) describes FLHE as a means of emphasizing the basic information about the family mechanism to the adolescents, through education. The report posited that it enlightens the in-school adolescents on how to manage their reproductive health issues, sexually transmitted infections (STIs), prevent teenage pregnancies and desist from the predicament of HIV and AIDS. FLHE is a process by which the in-school adolescents learn to develop, improve understanding of life in the family and live a life full of physical, social, emotional and moral potentialities (Family Life Foundation Institute, 2006).

Bill (2005), Bowker (2006), and Adeogbelowi (2007) stated that FLHE have created an opportunity for in-school adolescents to know that HIV and AIDS exist, the need for abstinence and the ability to make the right decision as a result of access to correct information and personal skills in school.  They confirmed that through the implementation of FLHE curriculum in secondary schools a large number of the adolescents will be reached with the knowledge of   STls and HIV and AIDS.  Similarly, Shofoyeke (2007) posited that FLHE is designed to address the captive audience, both in primary and junior secondary schools, who are considered as the window hope of the society, but since the FLHE curriculum has not been implemented in primary schools, the junior secondary school will be the target. He further contended that it helps the adolescents to develop abilities such as negotiation, assertiveness, copying with peer pressure, compassion, self-esteem and tolerance.  This may be the reason Momodu (2007) stated that FHLE curriculum is not about sex but sexuality education which provides the ability to understand ones body from birth to death. FLHE means inculcating in the secondary school students the necessary information, formation of positive attitude, as well as development of personal skills to cope with biological, psychological and moral aspects of human living to grow as healthy adults.  This will be achievable through the provision of those needs that will make FLHE curriculum implementation feasible.

Need is the gap between the available resources for teaching and learning and the actual resources to achieve the goals of teaching and learning (Farrel, 2010). He stated that it is something that is important for teaching and learning to take place. A need is a minimal condition in a situation or environment to reach an ideal situation (Jean, 2006).  According to him, it is expressed as the capacity to reach a condition or to perform a task according to a required minimal level of satisfaction.  He further explained that need arises from the presence of a gap between the fulfillment of this need and the situation experienced by a person.  This gap is called the situation of need.  Smith (2006) opined that in a school environment the situation of need experienced by a student expresses itself as an inability, a great difficulty or great restriction in performing a given task. He stated that a person in a situation of need experiences insecurity, marginality and also situation of handicap. According to him also, the reaching of this minimal level creates an avenue for the student to perform the task according to an acceptable minimal level.  Here, need is the gap in the availability  of teaching and learning resources for FLHE curriculum implementation in secondary schools. These resources could be the teaching resources such as the teachers, textbook and conducive environment.

Olaitan (1998) opined that teaching involves the presence of the teacher who needs to be knowledgeable in the curriculum content to implement the curriculum.  Teaching needs are those things that makes teaching feasible for the teacher (Onwumelue, 1999). He included competency of the teacher, availability of educational materials for teaching, conducive environment and methods of teaching, depending on the curriculum content to be implemented.  For the implementation of FLHE curriculum in secondary school, there should be available instructional materials, trained FLHE teachers to discuss sex related issues, utilization of FLHE time table in school and facilities (Adebiyi, 2007).  He suggested that teachers be re-trained and also create a conducive learning environment to aid teaching of the life skill topics in FLHE curriculum content to enable the future adults cope with the challenges of sexual life and HIV infection.

Conducive learning environment refers to the physical and spatial environment for teaching (Okeke,1990).He stated that inadequate facilities limit the amount of work by teachers in the implementation of any curriculum or programme. He further pointed  out that the major impediments of teaching is lack of adequate facilities. According to him also, if the infra-structures are not available, a large number of children will be squeezed in a classroom and is quite unhealthy for teaching even as a teacher is competent.

To be competent means the individual has acquired the knowledge, skills, attitudes and judgement which he requires in order to perform successfully at specified level in a given work (Olaitan,2003). For any educational programme to be successful, there must be qualified teachers who are competent and skilled in the use of pedagogy effectively (Katampe,2005). Hornby (2006) defined competency as being able to do something well. He posited that to be competent means having the necessary ability, authority, skill and knowledge in performing a task. Similary, Oranu (2002) also stated that a teacher’s competency should reflect the professional, subject matter, knowledge acquisition and the general and personal characteristics. He revealed that in a situation whereby these competencies are not properly developed, then the outcome could lead to poor teaching performance.

Global Health Awareness and Research Foundation (2002) stated the need for re-training of teachers to enable them discuss sex related issues in FLHE curriculum content. Training means teaching a person or animal to perform a particular job or skill well by a regular instruction or practice (Hornby, 1995). Mason (1995) posited that education and training should inspire and equip teachers with knowledge and skills to make a curriculum exciting to encourage students to establish behaviours about humanity. He contended that training for FLHE should include exercises that address teachers self awareness about their own sexuality. Teachers who are asked to teach FLHE should receive training on sexuality and accurate information to effectively address the issues in the FLHE curriculum content (Ronnie, 1996). He confirmed that training teachers in the use of health curricula improves their effective implementation of the programme or curriculum. Lindahl (1996) opined that a trained FLHE teacher needs to feel comfortable talking about sexuality and using the right terms of words as regards sex education. He stated that the trained teacher should use methods of teaching that cause him to command trust, give respect to  young people who must have faith in the individual and feel comfortable asking questions and discussing issues on sexuality.

Method is a formal structure of sequence of acts commonly denoted by instruction (Pollock & Oberteuffer, 1974).They explained that the term covers both the strategy and tactics of teaching and involves the choice of what to be taught. Opara (1993) stressed that the teacher needs to use at the secondary school level methods that allow students to get involved, play initiative, examine facts and events and take decision. He further stated that the content of the curriculum shows that some methods are preferable for some topics. A teaching method is a systematic procedure employed by teachers in their attempt to help learning take place (Offorma, 1994). She opined that teaching methods when properly selected and used bring life and meaning to the context of the curriculum and helps learners to move toward desirable goals. Teaching needs are those instructional materials that when available make teaching easier and help the teacher to achieve the aim toward a learning outcome.

Okorie (1992) posited that the provision of instructional materials like teaching aids is one area where education in Nigeria has generally lagged behind. He further stated that lack of teaching and learning aids hampers students’ achievement, especially in psychomotor domain. Dashen (2001) contended that as the school enrolment increases, there is need to increase the aids to motivate the teachers and learners for full participation in playing their role for implementation. The success or failure of any educational curriculum depends largely on the role played by the teacher and his experience (Obasi, 1986).

Experience is the process of gaining knowledge or skill over a period of time through seeing and doing things rather than through studying (Hornby, 1995). Ohalu (2004) specified that experienced teachers of a subject are those who have been teaching the subject consecutively for about four years and above, while the less experienced teachers are those who haven been teaching the subject for less than four years. He stated that less experienced teachers are likely to achieve less teaching especially as they are not familiar with the curriculum content to be implemented. According to Ubani (1993), study the effectiveness of achieving curriculum objectives is dependent on the professional experience of the teacher. He stated that 70 per cent success of the curriculum implementation is determined by the teacher’s experience who are the classroom implementers especially where there are available learning needs.

Learning needs involves all the materials that facilitate learning for the learner (Eze, 2000).He described learning needs as the instructional materials which provide direct interaction of learners with the realities of the objectives of the curriculum. According to him, these facilities also include conducive learning environment, library, learning materials such as textbooks, charts and projectors for learning purpose. Actionhealthinc (2008) posited that FLHE students’ handbook which is a Junior Secondary School supplementary text developed for use by students should be available for learner’s use in school. Actionhealthinc further explained that it will help learners to learn about their bodies, physical and emotional changes that occur during adolescence. Ugwuanyi (2000) asserted that the use of appropriate textbooks in learning facilitates learning as it serves also as an instructional material.

Instructional materials are those materials that provide direct involvement of learners with the fact of the social and physical environment in learning (Okeke, 2001). He explained that instructional materials improve the quality of instructions and make learning easy. He further stated that instructional materials in the form of visual aids like charts, posters and projectors make learning of factual information and skills easier than mere learning without such aids. Madu (2002) remarks that dull and unstimulating environment with little or no provision of teaching and learning needs for the teaching and learning of FLHE in secondary school brings about difficulty in Family Life and HIV Education Curriculum (FLHEC) implementation. Teaching and learning needs are instructional materials such as curriculum, trained teachers, library, textbooks and conducive enviroment which provides interaction of teachers and learners with the realties of the objectives of a curriculum (Eze, 2000 & Olowu, 2002). They contended that when these needs are provided and managed properly it results to effective implementation of curriculum content. Onwumelue (1990) had earlier described teaching and learning needs as those opportunities that makes teaching and learning feasible for the teacher and the student. He also explained that no educational enterprise or curriculum implementation can succeed without adequate provision and utilization of teaching and learning needs. Adopting the definition above, teaching and learning needs are those requirements and opportunities which should be provided and utilized for the implementation of FLHE curriculum in secondary Schools.

Curriculum implementation is the stage in a curriculum process when in the midst of learning activities teachers and learners are involved and aimed at promoting learning (Akudolu, 1994).  She further described it as the trying out stage of the curriculum plan.  Offorma (1994) defined curriculum implementation as the practical or instructional phase of the curriculum process whereby the teacher and learner come in contact with the curriculum. She posited that implementation is normally done in the classroom with the joint effort of the implementers (teachers) and users (learners) of the curriculum. Similarly, University of Zimbabwe (1995), and Ujaegesi (1995) viewed curriculum implementation as the translation or putting into practice the planned curriculum. They explain that planning a curriculum without implementation is a wasted effort in any educational setting or programme. The implementation of FLHE curriculum is putting into practice the planned FLHE curriculum which was introduced into the Nigerian Junior Secondary School curriculum in 2002 (Global Health Awareness and Research Foundation, 2005). The report revealed that the curriculum expressed some magnitude of problems which may likely hinder the successful implementation of the curriculum. The report further stated that the problems could be funding, lack of professional competent teachers to handle the subject matter and unavailability and utilization of teaching and learning aids. According to GARF (2005) FLHE curriculum implementation which started in 2004 through career subjects in some secondary schools in Nigeria does not cover the expected in depth for the programme. According to the report, less coverage was occasioned by non-availability of instructional materials, method of inclusion (that is integration) and inadequate teacher’s skills. FLHE topics being integrated across core subjects, taught by different teachers have not met with great success for its implementation (UNICEF, 2006). According to UNICEF report FLHE handled by non  trained teachers are less likely to cover the necessary topics, especially the more sensitive ones on sexuality and prevention of HIV. The report further suggested countries to move away from the integration approach and move toward the separate subject approaches. The report revealed that it will help in the effective implementation of FLHE curriculum in schools for the adolescents who are the target-population on the curriculum plan.

            As the threat of reproductive health hazards confronting the adolescents in Nigeria becomes the focus of research, the problems associated with adolescent sexuality becomes readily apparent. As the adolescent mature, some feel confused about what they suppose to do in a variety of situations like making sense of evolving relationship with family and peers (National Action Committee on AIDS, 2006). Moreover according to NACA(2oo6), HIV and AIDS is hitting adolescents hard as studies in Africa show that 7 in every 10 new HIV infections occur among those age 15-24 years. The population reference bureau (2000) noted that one third (36.5 million) of Nigeria’s total population of 123 million are adolescents between the ages of 10-24 years which is the age of  adolescence.

Adolescence age is a period of numerous changes including, physical, biological, social and psychological (Samuel, 2006). He stated that it is a time when young people are learning a great deal about themselves and adjusting to rapidly changing bodies. NACA, (2006) opined that during early adolescence which coincides with the junior secondary school age, many adolescents experience new uncertainties about their bodies and how they function. The report maintained that during the adolescence period the adolescents need FLHE that will model and teach them positive self worth, skills to cope with the changes and make informed decision about their sexual health, including the adolescents in Obollo-Afor education zone.

Obollo-Afor education zone is one of the six education zones in Enugu State. Its inhabitants are mostly farmers, traders and civil servants, predominantly teachers in primary and secondary schools. The education zone comprises of three local government areas such as Udenu, Igbo-Eze-North and Igbo-Eze-South. The characteristics of the population of this education zone has made it imperative for the implementation of the FLHE curriculum in the education zone to create an opportunity for in-school adolescents to be informed about  sexuality and to make informed decision. The implementation of the FLHE curriculum will be achieved when the materials such as the teaching and learning materials are available and utilized in secondary schools. The study was ancored on two theories which are the operant or instumental conditioning theory and the cognitive field theory.

 

Statement of the Problem

Family Life and HIV education (FLHE) curriculum was designed to develop secondary school student’s abilities to cope with peer pressure and make informed decision about sexuality. These objectives can only be achieved with the provision and utilization of the teaching and learning needs necessary for its implementation. UNICEF (2002) identified some of these teaching and learning needs that will make the FLHE curriculum implementation a success such as: trained teachers, quality time table, teaching aids, competent male and female teachers and use of appropriate methods. The FLHE curriculum implementation in Oyo state showed that FLHE curriculum being structured as a life skill development curriculum will need conducive environment, FLHE trained teachers, methods of teaching such as demonstration, field trip, story telling and use of teaching aids (Gbenga,2005).

Presently, in plateau state teachers have undergone special training that will help them teach FLHE topics in secondary schools (Sule, 2006) Lack of facilities, use of appropriate methods, teaching aids and trained teachers have made FLHE curriculum implementation a difficult task in secondary schools in some education zones in Abia State (Ogbu, 2008). Some secondary schools have well equipped libraries, teaching aids and textbooks for FLHE, while some lack competent teachers and others have not received the FLHE curriculum in the school.

FLHE curriculum has not been implemented in so many secondary schools and education zones in the country to date (Igubewehi, 2007). It might be as a result of the unavailability and utilization of the teaching and learning needs for FLHE in secondary school that has made implementation difficult in secondary school. Ogbu (2008) stated that lack of provision and utilization of these teaching and learning needs, can make the implementation of any curriculum or education programme not be achieved. Hence, the question what is obtainable for the implementation of FLHE curriculum in Obollo-Afor education zone? This education zone may not be different from other locations highlighted in the above assertions as having difficulties in FLHE curriculum implementation. Then, the task of the present study is to ascertain the teaching and learning needs for FLHE curriculum implementation in secondary schools in Obllo-Afor education zone of Enugu state.     

Purpose of the Study

The purpose of the study was to find out the teaching and learning needs for Family Life and HIV education (FLHE) curriculum implementation in secondary schools in Obollo-Afor education zone of Enugu State. Specifically, the objectives of the study are to:

 

  1. ascertain the extent of utilization of FLHE trained teachers for FLHE curriculum implementation in secondary schools in Obollo-Afor education zone;
  2. find out the availability of teaching aids for FLHE curriculum implementation in secondary schools in Obollo-Afor education zone;
  3. determine teaching methods for FLHE curriculum implementation in secondary schools in Obollo-Afor education zone;
  4. determine the extent of utilization of the time table for FLHE in the implementation of FLHE curriculum in secondary schools in Obollo-Afor education zone;
  5. investigate the availability of facilities for FLHE curriculum implementation in secondary schools in Obollo-Afor education zone;
  6. determine the availability of learning aids for FLHE curriculum implementation in schools in Obollo-Afor education zone;
  7. determine the methods students use in learning FLHE for FLHE curriculum implementation in secondary schools in Obollo-Afor education zone;
  8. find out the extent of utilization of FLHE time table for learning for implementation of FLHE curriculum in secodary school in Obollo-Afor education zone; and
  9. investigate the availability of facilities for learning FLHE in schools for implementation of FLHE curriculum in secondary schools in Obollo-Afor education zone.

 

Research Questions

The following research questions were developed to guide the study.

  1. What is the level of utilization of FLHE trained teachers for FLHE curriculum implementation in secondary schools in Obollo-Afor education zone?
  2. What are the teaching aids available for FLHE curriculum implementation in secondary schools in Obollo-Afor education zone?
  3. What are the teaching methods for FLHE curriculum implementation in secondary in Obollo-Afor education zone?
  4. to what extent is the FLHE time table utilized for FLHE curriculum implementation in Secondary schools in Obollo-Afor education zone?
  5. What are the facilities available for FLHE curriculum implementation in secondary schools in Obollo-Afor education zone?
  6. What are the learning aids are available for FLHE curriculum implementation in secondary schools in Obollo-Afor education?
  7. What are the methods used in learning FLHE  for FLHE curriculum implementation in secondary schools in Obollo-Afor education?
  8.  What is the extent of utilization of FLHE time table for learning for FLHE curriculum implementation in secondary schools in Obollo-Afor education?
  9. What are the facilities  available for learning FLHE for FLHE curriculum implementation in secondary schools in Obollo-Afor education?

 

 

Hypotheses

 

The following hypotheses were postulated to guide the study and were tested at .05 level of significance at the appropriate probability value

  1. There is no significant difference in the mean response scores of experienced and less experienced FLHE teachers on the implementation of FLHE curriculum in secondary schools in Obollo-Afor education zone.
  2. There is no significant difference in the mean response scores of male and female teacher  on the implementation of FLHE curriculum in Obollo-Afor education zone.

 

Significance of the Study

The present study ascertained the teaching and learning needs for family life and HIV education curriculum implementation in Secondary Schools in Obollo-Afor education zone of Enugu State. The data generated will be beneficial to officers of Post Primary Schools Management Board-PPSMB, health education teachers, school administrators, State Ministry of Education –SMOE, curriculum planners and the students.

The data generated from the availability of teaching aids showed the teaching and learning aids available for FLHE curriculum implementation in secondary schools in Obollo-Afor education zone.The available teaching and learning aids include trained teachers, chalk, chalk-board, posters, magazines and pamphlets. This will help the curriculum planners, PPSMB members,health education and FLHE teachers, as the curriculum  planners may revisit the curriculum to create an avenue for the provision of the necessary teaching and learning  aids for the implementation. The findings will also help the PPSMB to seek for a well equipped resource material centre in the education zone from the state ministry of education.  The FLHE teachers will benefit from the resource center for their teaching aids for easy teaching and learning of the contents of the FLHE curriculum.

The study investigated the extent of utilization of FLHE trained teachers for FLHE curriculum implementation in Secondary Schools in Obollo-Afor education zone. The findings showed that teachers engaged in re-training,participate in FLHE workshop and also engaged in seminar to teach FLHE in school.  The findings will  be beneficial to SMOE and FLHE teachers. The findings will help the State Ministry of Education to know how qualified the teachers of FLHE are to handle the topics of FLHE curriculum especially the sensitive topics of the curriculum and how also how to re-train more teachers for FLHE in the education zone.The training  exposed the training received by FLHE teachers. This will provide them with the opportunity to recieve more training that will qualify them to teach the topics of the curriculum and even to know their own seuality.

Data was generated on the teaching methods used for FLHE curriculum implementation in Obollo-Afor education zone. The findings showed that methods mostly used in teaching and learning of FLHE include: demonstration.storey-telling,lectureand discussion. This data will help curriculum planners and the State Ministry of Education-SMOE, FLHE teachers and students.  The curriculum planners and SMOE will have the opportunity to review the curriculum and make provision for the use of some methods of teaching more often than others.  The teachers as the classroom implementers will use different methods that will be appropriate to achieve the objectives of the curriculum.  The students will benefit from the more practical methods used to be able to develop skills and make informed decisions about their sexuality.

The study ascertained the extent of availability of facilities for FLHE curriculum implementation in Secondary Schools in Obollo-Afor education zone.  This showed that the facilities available for the FLHE curriculum implementation include: conducive classroom, FLHE section in the school library and drama halls.  It’s findings will be beneficial to the School Management Board (SMB), the health education teachers and also the students.  The SMB will have the knowledge of the available facilities and will help in providing the necessary facilities needed in schools through the SMOE of the state.The health education teachers and students will make use of these facilities to make teaching and learning of FLHE possible and easy for them in school.

From the study, data was generated on the extent of utilization of FLHE time table for FLHE curriculum implementation in Secondary Schools in Obollo-Afor education zone.

The findings here showed how often the time allocated for FLHE in the school time table are utilized. It showed that teachers teach FLHE at their own convienent time, use the FLHE time table as it is in the school time table, students miss FLHE class because the teacher did not come to class.The findings will help the school administrators and the teachers. From the findings the school administrator will have the knowledge of how the FLHE curriculum is being covered in a term and creat an avenue for more time for FLHE and for improvement in the use of the FLHE time table. This will help FLHE teachers to make use of the time allocated for FLHE and cover the scheme of work at the appropriate time.

The operant conditioning and the cognitive field theory used in the study showed how availability will determine utilization of resources. When the teaching and learning needs are provided, the teachers and learners will utilize them for the implementation of FLHE curriculum in secondary school.

Scope of the Study

The study was delimited to the three local government areas in Obollo-Afor education zone which are, Udenu, Igbo-Eze-South and Igbo-Eze-North LGAs in Enugu State. It  involved all the State owned  junior secondary schools under the management of Post Primary Schools Management Board (PPSMB) in Obollo-Afor education zone. These schools was used because they operate under one governing and management board which makes them uniform. Private schools was not used for the study because they don’t operate under uniform management board. The schools for the study include boys, girls and community(mixed) secondary schools and all the FLHE teachers in the education zone.

The study also was delimited to the teaching and learning needs for FLHE curriculum implementation in secondary schools in Obollo-Afor education zone. Such teaching and learning needs were level of utilization of FLHE trained teachers, availability of teaching and learning aids, methods of teaching and learning, extent of utilization of FLHE time table,  and availability of facilities for FLHE curriculum implementation. Factors that are likely to impinge on the study like teaching experience and gender was examined. The cognitive field theory and operant conditioning theory are the theories the study was anchored on and they were examined.

 

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