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1.1 Background of the Study
Mass media are very important tools of communication, through which information is passed
to even the farthest end of the society. They enable us to communicate with each other by
helping us to overcome the barriers of time and space. They perform both primary and
secondary functions for the society.
The media of mass communication are divided into the electronic (broadcast) and print
media. The print media involves mainly magazine and newspaper; they are informers which
provide retrievable, researched, in-depth and interpretative news stories of events.
The broadcast media comprise of the radio and television, it has not been as enterprising as it
should be. This is due to the majority ownership and control of the broadcast media by the
Concisely put, broadcast is a society wide type of message dissemination, which involves the
transmission of ideas, words, sounds, pictures and values in the form of signals through the
airwaves to a target audience. Broadcasting is an activity of a branch of the media of mass
communication called the electronic media that use transmitters and airwaves in the
transmission of news and information to their heterogeneous audience.
Ownership is a critical factor for the content of any medium. This implies that there is a
connection between ownership and the content and nature of a medium. The nature of
ownership itself is determined by the character of the owner, his interests and the vision he
has for the medium. Character here indicates whether ownership is private or public, private
oriented or non-profit oriented. Interest refers to the economic (business) concerns and

political persuasion of the owner. And vision here, means the idea of the owner about what a
medium should be or do and his understanding of the practices and goals of journalism.
All these go a long way to determine the interest of the medium and its coverage of certain
issues. McQuail (2000) contends that the belief that ownership ultimately determines the
nature of media is not just a Marxist theory but virtually a common sense axiom summed up
in Alttschull‟s (1984) “Second law of journalism: the contents of the media always reflects in
interests of those who finance them.
The disposition of an owner is to his interests and vision for the medium would also, to an
extent determine his view of the theory of social responsibility which sees “media ownership
as a form of public trust or stewardship, rather than as an unlimited private franchise”
McQuail (2000).
Agba, a communication expert presents further analysis of third world system as a system
were ownership and control of the media is typical of communist or socialist countries in
which the media are owned publicly and controlle

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