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THE IMPACT OF SOCIO-CULTURAL FACTORS ON REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH A CASE STUDY OF ZARIA AND ITS ENVIRONS

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CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Reproduction has played a vital role in our lives as humans and it only way of having increment in the society. More than half a million women in developing countries die each years as a result of mortality and pregnancy cases [WHO 2007] more especially in our countries. Culture: an impact in our reproductive system and it processes of giving birth to our younger ones.

Nigeria government has put in place a number of policies and laws. despite the effort, the reproductive health situation in Nigeria is still lagging or suffering.[2003 demographic survey] and other report of [WH02003] world health organization, example Nigeria with about three [3] million people infected with HIV and AIDS .[conference of HIV and AIDS 2004] is the second country after south-Africa with the largest number of people living with HIV and AIDS in Africa. The mortality rate put at about one thousand [1,000] death per ten thousand [100,000] birth is one of the highest in the world. For every woman that dies about [15-20] suffer morbidities according to [WHO] report on morbidities in Nigeria ABUTH Zaria 2003. Similarly, the child mortality ratio remains one of the worst in the world. [Ness to comprehensive information for health care services]

Looking through the socio-cultural factor, culture is as old as man himself the role which culture played in our society. Today has therefore affected reproductive in our Africa environments particularly the adolescent in our country has remained a great challenge, some religions and customary practices have continued to be misinterpreted to endanger the lives and health of women in country.

Some factors which will be emphasize on reproductive health in our environment has to do with child early marriage with an attendant consequences. Such as withdrawal of girl from school, high mortality rate and prevalence of condition like Viscous Vagmal Fistula [VVF] or Reatol Vagmal Fistula [RUF] among people.

Reproductive health as a human condition which involves not just the absence of dieses or infirmity of reproductive systems or its process but involves

1.1     AIM OF THE STUDY

To access the impact of socio-cultural factors on reproductive health in Zaria local government area

1.2 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

To the following are the objectives.

  1. To get some insight about socio-cultural related issues
  2. To assess the impact of socio-cultural factors on reproductive health among the people of Zaria.
  3. To find lasting solutions to reproductive problem facing people particularly those in Zaria local government area.

1.3     HYPOTHYESIS

For the purpose of this research the following are, postulated as the hypothesis: l-socio-cultural factors have significant impact on human reproduction and also the population in Zaria local government.

1.4 SOURCE OF THE DATA

The Source of the data to be used for the study will be mainly from secondary source. This are officially records of pregnancy stored in some selected hospital in the local government.

Data will be collected from hospitals in Gyallesu, Tudun Wada and Zaria city on reproductive health

B-METHOD OF DATA ANALYSIS

The data will be analyzed using charts, table, graphs and histogram. Percentage will be used for more vivid and visual presentation of the information received from the question ire.

1.5 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEMS

Reproductive health is a very crucial issue that affect our lives especially women. This is one of problem facing the health issue of people in Zaria local government.

Therefore, there is a need to look at what are the factors which have effect on Reproductive health in other to improve the situation.

SCOPES AND LIMITATION

The focus of this study will be on the impact of socio-cultural to reproductive health in Zaria local government area of Kaduna state. The work will look at the role which culture played in the life of the populations of Zaria such as: Tudun Wada, Zaria City, Gyallesu and Dakachi.

LIMITATION

As human beings, it is natural to encounter some difficult in carrying out a research of this nature.

These problems vary, ranging mostly from the lack of sufficient funds, insufficient time due to academic work load, scarcity of material and unwillingness of respondents, encountered in the course of dispatching questionnaire.

Thus the researcher decided to limit the research work to the last area of 1988 and also reference is made to the period after 1988 as well as the Zaria city, which is the major participant of the regulatory system.

PHYSICAL BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY AREA

The town called Zaria is originated from the history of the Hausa culture Zaria entirely was firmed right from the origin of the famous founding father of the Hausas [BAI-JINDA] the Zaria was named among the children of BAI-JIDDA called the Hausa Bai-Jidda meaning the seven sons daughters of Bai-Jidda which are the Kano, Sokoto, Zaria, Daura, Katsina etc. Zaria was named by the famous Queen Amina who ruled over Zaria since before the arrival of the British colonial masters.

Zaria is so grant with the emir as the ruler of Zaria. It is traditionally forming of government with it numerous followers.

LOCATION OF ZARIA

Zaria is located between longitude 7oE and latitude 11oN [Aladepo 1955] in Kaduna state of Nigeria, the central part of the northern state of Nigerian it is about 65km from the state capital. And also one of the province that constitute the central plane of northern Nigeria. It is about 670m above other main sea levels. The metropolis include includes samaru, Tudun-wada and Zaria city.

VEGETATION

The vegetation type of Zaria and it environments is savanna woodland which is greatly controlled by its nature of climate condition, Soil types and human as a factors. The vegetation is seasonally in nature, it mostly start from April to November [dry period]. The main plant which is found growing are silk cotton, locust beans, trees, share butter, baobao trees and elephant grasses. The vegetation cover of the area been modified from 1970s till date due to both human and climate changes plant grown are millet, maize, tomatoes and potatoes etc.

RELIEF AND DRAINAGE

The relief and drainage pattern of Zaria reveals factures dominated by three [3] rivers mainly kubanini, saye and Galma. There are mini stream which has a tributes to Kabanini and Galma, this include Fatical and wuma. It is only Galma, saye and

kubanini that play a vital role to Zaria economic activities, such activities include Fishing ,Irrigation farming, demystification and also industrialization, the relief is dominated by the presence of high plaince of Hausa land hisellberg and hill. The high plains of Hausa land found in Zaria, Kano and katsina are extensive between 2000-2500 feet above the sea level.

The hilsellberg of Zaria is known as dome shaped hill commonly found in desert area. There are three [3] well established hillberg mainly.

The Kuffena, Farakwai and Tukur Tukur Farrakwa hisellberg is located about 23 kilometers from Zaria along Kaduna road, Tukur – Tukur is located along Barewa Boys College and Kuffena in the south-west and north-west of Zaria. A few kilometers after the Wusasa village.

CLIMATE OF ZARIA

Zaria and its environs a peculiar climate. The climate of Zaria is savanna type [tropical continental climate] with a district dry and wet season it’s climate tend to correspond to the wet day climate of the kuppen scheme with annual average temperature about 270c throughout the year. Temperature in summer between 8O-90oF [270o-35oCL] and low in winter between 50-60oF [lO-16oc]. The rainfall of Zaria is distributed for a period of six [6] to seven month and it ratio about 1800mm. the rainfall begins in the month of May and ends at early month of October and it associated with thunder storms and heavy winds.

The climate of Zaria express douls distinct season namely the dry or the harm tern season [October-march] and the wet season [April- March]. The two seasons are due to the air masses that blows from the dry continental north and moisture which is from the Atlantic south.

SOCIAL BACKGROUND

Looking at the social background of Zaria, Zaria is mostly nominated by majority the Hausas who came from difference other town such as Kano, Sokoto, Katsina and Zamfara etc. the town also has numerous tribes living all over the town as visitors indigene by birth etc. They are Yorubas, Igbos, Igala, Fulani and others. Zaria is a well ethnical in its scope and nature.

SETTLEMENT PATTERN

The nature of Zaria settlement is nucleated settlement. Having four distinct urban centers. Physically separated from one another. Those settlement are Samaru, Sabon Gari, Tudun Wada and the famous ancient city of zaria surrounded by a seemity traditional well of about 6-10 meters height and a circumference of about eight kilometers [8km].The city being the traditional house of the emir of Zaria, it has central Juma’at mosque and a local market.

TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM

Zaria has a linear road network in the structure which runs from south to north direction from Zaria city to Samaru.

The problems which lead to low level of having more roads are due to the location of the barrack, Sabon Gari market and the railway network station. [Sabon Gari local government SENC Kaduna, ZARIA]. The traffic conjunction must found along Tudun Wada round about, PZ round about, the Sabon market linking to Kasuwan mata and mostly the fly over along samaru road.

Mostly the means of transport ting both human, goods, and services in Zaria are motor cycle, taxis and even Kekenapep.

ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES

Zaria not left behind in the area of economic activities. It has two forms of economy activities, which are secondary and tertiary activities.

The secondary activity has to do with industrial population. Many people employed in Tobacco Company, Cocated, Chikagi, Sun seed located at Jos road Zaria pharmaceutical also located at old Jos road, Dakachi industrial services mechanizes and lot more. Many people are employed in banks, hospital, schools and hotels. To move and ends a sound living. Many others are farmers, hunters

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