Extraction and formation of perfume from various plants resources
1. 1 INTRODUCTION
The word perfume derives from the latin ―per fumum‖ meaning through smoke, is fragrant liquid that is sprayed or rubbed on the skin or clothes to give a pleasant smell. Extraction of perfume from various plants resources is of ancient origin. Infact the natives from different tropical regions of the globe have long been extracting oil from numerous oil bearing plants. Human since the ancient time have known how to extract oil from their natural resources. Vegetable oils are naturally occurring esters of higher fatty acids and glycerol. They are widely distributed in nature and were first consumed as food. Later oils were discovered to be used as renewable raw materials for variety of non food production, for instance perfumes, disinfectants, inks to mention but a few.
1.2 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Several thousands of plants distributed throughtout the world contain a group of odiferous, fragrance, oily products that are highly volatile organic substances collectively known as essential oils. ―Essential‖ does not mean ―most necessary‖ but rather the concentrated characteristics or quintessence of a natural flavor or fragrance raw material (Coulson et al,
2003). Therefore, perfume may be from essential oils of vegetables or plant origin. It is a complex mixture of aldehydes, ketones, hydrocarbons, alcoholic acid and short chain esters.
The existence of perfume on certain plants has been known for thousands of years. They can be found in leaves, flowers, stems, barks, and roots. Ancient Egytians extracted essential oils from plants tissues by steam distillation (Ogbu,2005). Other methods of isolating essential oils includes solvent extraction, expression, cold plate or enfleurage. Some of these methods have been adopted by essential oil extracting industries. Information on perfume when the essential oils have been extracted from plants are of different type of oils and these will ultimately influence the smell of perfume over time namely:….