Adjustment Dimension of Retired teachers in Onueke Education Zone of Ebonyi State.

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Background of the Study

        Occupation has a serious influence on peoples’ sense, of identity. Withdrawing from it, makes a phenomenal development in his/her life. Alutu (1999) sees this development to become crucial because one’s dimensions of life is changed from what it is used to be in terms of dressing, official hour, interactions with colleagues in the office and even attitude to the life of retired workers. Hornby (2000) describes retirement as the period of life after one has stopped work at any particular age. It is the act of stopping a particular type of work, especially in sports or in polities due to age or years on the job.

Olusakin (1999) equally defines retirement as a situation in which a person leaves a job he has been used to do in order to face another stage in his/her life whereby he now settles down to establish their own private job, which he/she does at one’s own convenience. Richardson and Atchley in Gillian (2004) define retirement as transitional stage of life that can be a pleasant experience and traumatic for others which depend on the way the person concerned, perceives it. Retirement can mean different things to different people in the society. Some feel that retirement is reducing the amount of work hours per week, from fulltime to part-time work and for others, it is working on a voluntary basis or ceasing from all work activities, paid or unpaid.  Gillian (2004) defines retirement as the disengagement from business or public life, at which when one retires, the worker is no longer gainfully employed and begins to receive retirement benefits. Goold (2007) regards retirement as an important stage in human development which bring changes in life that requires adjustments in identify, thinking, feeling and actions. Asuquo (2007) sees retirement as a complex social phenomenon that signifies the detachment from customary activities in business, industry or active service as full-time employee.

Kaplan cited in Ukwuayi (2002) believes that retirement is the formal disengagement of a worker from a line of work in which he has made a career.  Dada and Idowu  (2003) define retirement as a transition from the world of work into a world of less rigorous work activity and rest especially in respect of retirement due to old age or long years of service.

Marshall (2004) says some may see retirement as reducing the amount of work hours  per  week from full-time to part-time status, while others see it as working on a voluntary basis. Dchley 1988, Richardson (1999) describes traditional view of retirement to mean when one is no longer gainfully employed and receive benefits. But can engage in any other meaningful activities in order to earn his/her living in the society.     Ukwuayi (2002) defines retirement as withdrawal from position or service, going away, retreating or removal from work. Abiola (2000) sees retirement as occupational death as opposed to biological death. Despite these subjective and objective definitions, views and opinions of retirement, one can agree that retirement requires reduction of activities prior to the later stages of life.

In my own view and contribution, retirement is a process where by one retires from the activities of his/her youthful age to the adult age but still engage in other ventures in order to make end meet.



The researcher says that  any one who is interested in the issues surrounding labour management relations  in Nigeria will believe with me that the real problems facing Nigeria teachers is that they are unmotivated and under appreciated because they are not being paid their retirements benefits due to them as at and when due and no teacher at both primary and secondary school levels are been given contract  jobs to do such as engaging them to teach again as it happened in the case of the lecturers in the higher institutions after their retirement, when the teacher in this category retires, so they are left like that to suffer without anybody coming to their rescue or their aids.

The researcher also maintains that the reward system of teachers in Nigeria is very poor and not being paid the living wages, they are seen to be used as rag and discarded without effective retirement and social securities and salaries benefits which in this situations, one retired teacher died on the farm when working because he is working with an empty stomach and also the case of another retired teacher who died on his way to collect his benefits. With this ugly situation, the retired teachers find it difficult to plan for good adjustment in their retirement which can lead to psychological well-being of a retired teacher and also if taking care of, it will prolong their life span after retirement.

Omeje (2002) State two types of retirement as follows: Voluntary and Mandatory  while Omoresemi (1987) Akande (1995) and Olusakin (1999) stated three major forms of retirement as voluntary, Compulsory and mandatory retirement. The statutory age of retirement is in section 4(1) of the Pension ACT of the Federal of Republic of Nigeria. The act prescribes 60 years as age of compulsory retirement for public servants and 65 years for judicial officers. Also the Decree No. 43 of 1989 added another element to the provision by specifying that teachers who have worked for 35 years or have attained 60 year of age  should retire  compulsorily.

Asuquo and Maliki (2007) describes voluntary retirement as  that which occurs when the individual decides to quit active service for personal reasons irrespective of age, experience, length of service or retirement policies. It depends more on the employee than the employer which most of the voluntary retirement plan requires a minimum number of years of work before the employee is eligible for retirement. In Nigeria, the minimum number of years of work presently before the employee qualities for voluntary retirement with benefits in public service such as a teacher is the period of 10 years.

Donnelly (1996) cited in Ukwuayi (2002) says that in a typical year an average of (10) percents of teachers who are eligible for retirement retires early, but it is related to benefit from the service rendered. UKwuayi (2002) observes that the united state census Bureau found out that men retires early and voluntary than women. Asuquo and Maliki (2006) describes compulsory retirement as a situation in which the individuals is forced or complied to retire against the individual will or expectation and especially when he is ill-prepared for it. Penner (1986) says it is usually viewed negatively because it is un planned and reasons mighty include inefficiency, old age, ill-health, indiscipline and need for reduction of the workforce.

Akinade (1993) describes mandatory retirement as the normal or expected form of retirement in the sense that the person involved has reached the statutory age of retirement as specified already in the condition of civil service of the establishment.    Asugwu (2002) says in Nigeria for example, the age specification for the teachers is 60 years while judges and lectures retires at the age of 65 years or when the teacher has put in 35 years of service, whether voluntary, compulsory and mandatory, retirement is known to bring about a lot of social psychological, physiological and financial effects on retirees. Asuquo and Maliki (2007) says that it can be anticipated as threatening or challenging, when the people who attempt to adjust to the exigency of retirement do so in various ways depending on how prepared they are psychologically, socially, economically, vocationally, politically and spiritually.

Akande (2004) summarizes the following as his own types of retirement policy, they are:

  1. Early retirement: This arises from ill-health and organizational request.
  2. Voluntary retirement: It is seen as an exercise of one’s right.
  3. Late retirement: This is in line with the conforming on organization policy.
  4. Gradual or phased retirement: It is as a result of the desire for self-actualization.
  5. Force retirement: It is on the basis of the retrenchment before the time of retirement and finally, retirement which can be done due to redundancy, ill-health and unproductivity, which is known as an unplanned retirement.

Asuguo (2007) in his studies, identified certain basics features of retirement:

Firstly, he see retirement as a period of transition and a change in variety of ways, changes in value, habits, daily routine, lifestyle, living arrangement, self-concept, role, use of time, financial adjustment and adjustment in age.

Secondly, retirement involves reassessment of life which entails careful recording of personal identity and life pattern especially as it affects new tasks, physical, mental, financial capabilities, prospects, social engagements and home maintenance feeding, furniture fees and vehicles.

Thirdly, it provides opportunity for personal satisfaction, proper utilization of intellect and skills as well as for learning, growth in leisure and recreational activities.

Odu (1998) observes that people who plan for their retirement well in advance,…