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AETIOLOGY OF THE FUNGAL ROT OF CUCUMBER FRUIT (CUCUMIS SATIVUS L.) AND THE EFFICACY OF ITS CONTROL WITH PHYTOCHEMICALS FROM CRUDE EXTRACTS OF TWO PLANTS.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page ……………………………………………………………………………… i
Certification page ……………………………………………………………………… ii
Dedication ………………………………………………………………………………iii
Acknowledgement …………………………………………………………………….. iv
Table of contents ……………………………………………………………………… v
List of plates ……………………………………………………………………………viii
List of tables ……………………………………………………………………………ix
List of figures …………………………………………………………………………. x
Abstract ……………………………………………………………………………….. xi
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Horticultural maturity indices …………………………………………………….. 1
1.2 Taste of cucumber and reaction …………………………………………………… 2
1.3 Uses of cucumber and its nutritional value …………..…………………………… 2
1.4 Diseases of cucumber …………………………………………………………….. 3
1.4.1 Alternaria rot …………………………………………………………………. 3
1.4.2 Belly rot ………………………………………………………………………. 3
1.4.3 Cottony leak …………………………………………………………………… 4
1.4.4 Rhizopus soft rot ……………………………………………………………… 4
1.4.5 Anthracnose …………………………………………………………………… 5
1.4.6 Gray mould …………………………………………………………………… 5
1.4.7 Blue mould …………………………………………………………………… 5
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Description of the plants ………………………………………………………… 10
2.1.1 Chromolaena odorata (L.) King and Robinson ………………………………. 10
2.1.2 Uses of C. odorata ……………………………………………………………. 10
2.1.3 Moringa oleifera Lam. ………………………………………………………… 11
2.1.4 Uses of M. oleifera ……………………………………………………………. 11
2.2 Antimicrobial values of Chromolaena odorata and Moringa oleifera………..… 11
CHAPTER THREE: MATERIALS AND METHODS
3.1 Sources of materials ………………………………………………………………… 15
3.2 Culture media ……………………………………………………………………….. 15
3.2.1 Water Agar (WA) …………………………………………………………………. 15
3.2.2 Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA) ……………………………………………………… 16
3.2.3 Preparation of PDA medium ……………………………………………………… 16
3.3 Isolation and identification of fungi ………………………………………………… 16
3.4 Determination of percentage frequency of occurrence of fungal isolates …………… 17
3.5 Pathogenicity test ……………………………………………………………………. 17
3.6 Disease severity rating ………………………………………………………………. 18
3.7 Preparation of plant materials ……………………………………………………….. 18
3.8 Extraction of active principles ………………………………………………………. 18
3.9 Effect of plant extracts on in vitro inhibition of mycelial growth of fungal isolates … 19
3.10 Effect of plant extracts on in vivo inhibition of mycelial growth of fungal isolates … 20
3.11 Phytochemical analysis ……………………………………………………………… 20
CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS
4.1 Isolation and identification of fungi …………………………………………………. 22
4.2 Characterization of the fungal isolates from the diseased cucumber fruits………………. 25
4.3 Percentage frequency of occurrence of fungal isolates ………………………………. 25
4.4 Disease Severity Rating ……………………………………………………………… 33
4.5 Effects of ethanolic plant extracts on in vitro treatment of the fungal isolates ……… 33
4.6 Effects of ethanolic plant extracts on in vivo treatment of the fungal isolates ……… 34
4.7 Phytochemical analysis ………………………………………………………………. 41
CHAPTER FIVE: DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION …………………………………. 43
REFERENCES …………………………………………………………………………… 47
APPENDIX …

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