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Analysis of bush pear and its oil (91 pages) CHAPTER 1-5

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91 Pages | chapter 1-5 | PDF and Microsoft Format

Project Description

Analysis of bush pear and its oil (91 pages) CHAPTER 1-5

ABSTRACT
The research project studies the analysis of pear and its oil. The mesocarp from edible African pear “DacryodesEdulis” were evaluated for their oil yield. The pulp from this pear were oven dried at 100oC-105oC to a moisture content level of 29%.The mesocarp was subjected to proximate analysis to determine the percentage of the moisture, ash, fat, crude fibre, crude protein and carbohydrate content which resulted to the values of 29%, 2%, 19.6%, 25.5%, 11.9%, and 12% respectively. Then the dried sample was pulverized by using hammer mill and the oil was extracted by solvent extraction using n-hexane. The oil extracted were analyzed for the chemical properties i.e. (Acid value, saponification value, peroxide value, iodine value) etc. the values obtained are respectively 8.41gm/KOH/gm, 185.1gm/KOH/gm, 2.8gm/KOH/gm 3.96gm/iodine/gm and Physical properties i.e. (Refractive index, Ph value, specific gravity) which the values obtained are 1.469brix, 5.7 and 0.92. and the The percentage oil yield content is 51.57%. This physio-chemical characteristic and fatty acid composition of this oil show that they have industrial potentials.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page i
Certification ii
Approval page iii
Dedication iv
Acknowledgement v
Abstract vi
Table of contents vii
chapter one
1.0 Introduction 1
1.1 Historical background of the study 3
1.2 Aims and objectives 5
1.3 Statement of the problem 6
1.4 Significance/economic importance of the study 6
1.5 Scope and limitation of the study 7
chapter two
2.0 Literature review 9
viii
2.1 Introduction 9
2.2 Extraction 10
2.2.1 Mechanical/physical method of extraction 11
2.2.2 Chemical/solvent method 12
2.2.3 Basic principles of solvent extraction 13
2.2.4 Choice of solvent/solvent properties 15
2.2.5 Applications of solvent extraction 16
2.2.6 Methods of leaching operations 17
2.2.7 Solvent extraction theory 17
2.2.8 Factors affecting the rate of extraction 20
2.2.9 Properties of solvent 21
2.3.0 Extractors 22
2.3.1 Distillation as a separation technique 24
2.3.2 Classification of oils 25
2.3.3 Properties of oil 26
2.4 African Pear 31
2.4.1 Features of the African pear 31
ix
2.4.2 Taxonomy of the African pear plant 32
2.4.3 Characteristic and composition of the African 33
2.5.0 Oil from African pear 34
2.5.1 Uses of African pear 35
2.5.2 Economic values of African pear 37
Chapter Three
3.0 Characterisation of dacryodesedulis 40
3.1 Experiment Procedures 40
3.1.1 Material/Equipment 40
3.1.2 Reagents 42
3.2 Pre-treatment processes 43
3.3 Extraction of the oil 44
3.4 Characterisation of the oil. 45
3.4.1 To Determine the percentage yield of the oil 45
3.5 Proximate analysis of dacryodesedulis 46
3.5.1 To determine the moisture contents of the sample 46
3.5.2 To Determine the ash content of the sample 47
x
3.5.3 To determine the fat content of the sample
(lipid – fat & oil) 49
3.5.4 To Determine the crude fibre of the sample 50
3.5.5 To Determine carbohydrate content 52
3.6 Chemical analysis of the oil 52
3.6.1 Determination of acid value of the african pear oil 53
3.6.2 Determination of the iodine value of african pear oil 53
3.6.3: Determination of the peroxide value of african pear oil 56
3.6.4 Determination of saponification value of the oil 58
3.7 Physical analysis of the oil 59
3.7.1 To Determine the refractive index of the oil 59
3.7.2 To Determinethe specific gravity of African pear oil 60
3.7.3 Determination of the ph value of African pear oil 60
Chapter Four
4.0 Experimental results and discussion 62
4.1 Tables and results 62
4.2 Discussion 64
Chapter Five
xi
5.0 Conclusion and recommendation 65
5.1 Conclusion 65
5.2 Recommendation 65
References 67
Appendix 72

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