1.1 Background of the Study
Advertising has tremendously changed from what it used to be in the past decades (MacDonald, 2002:599). Nearly everyone in today’s world is influenced to some degrees about what new advertising and other forms of promotion are especially in the dynamic and revolutionary changes of the new era marketing which are all being driven by the advances in technology and developments. These have consequently led to the rapid growth of communications through interactive media, particularly the Internet (Katz, 2007:2). The proliferation of these new technologies in the last decade however affected advertising considerably. With cable TV and satellite receivers, viewers can watch channels devoted to single types of programming, such as straight news, home shopping, sports, or comedy. This shift has also transformed television and radio stations from the most widespread of mass media to a more specialized, narrowcasting medium (MacDonald, 2002:599). While the media remain the mainstay of every effective advert (Mann, Henning and Meehan, 2003), a match of growth and development between them and the new advert has however been deemed fundamental for consideration by many advertising agencies if desired results must be achieved at all in this dispensation (Schramm, 2004:38).
The Enugu State Broadcasting Services comprising of television and radio broadcasts was opened on October 1st, 1960 when Nigeria got her independence and was then called Eastern Nigeria Broadcasting Corporation (ENBC). At the end of civil war in 1970, the name was changed to East Central Broadcasting Service (ECBS) and in 1975 also, ECBS has to change its name again to Anambra Broadcasting Corporation (ABC) at Onitsha and ABC11 at hill top station, Ngwo. In 1978, the television arm of the ABC became the present NTA channel 8. In 1980, the ABC11 was opened at Onitsha as a commercial station to market the 20th anniversary of broadcasting. In 1985 both the ABC radio and ATV channel five were merged together as Anambra broadcasting Service (ABS) with Radio and TV stations at Enugu and Onitsha. Today, the Enugu station has come to be known as Enugu State Broadcasting Service (ESBS) for the Radio and ETV channel 50 for television. The ESBS is a state government’s owned broadcasting station. The public depends greatly on its radio frequency and television channel for information on things happening in the society or environment. Government uses both the radio and television stations as one of its organs for information dissemination. Corporate bodies and Organizations likewise use the radio and television services for various commercial activities like publicity and advertising.
In spite of the fascinating importance of having the ESBS radio and television broadcasting media stations in the state, it should also be remembered that there are many other television and radio broadcast media stations like: Daar Communications Ltd, owners of African Independent Television and Raypower; Nigerian Television Authority (NTA Channel 8); Lion FM, University of Nigeria, Nsukka; Sunrise FM, Enugu; Caritas University FM, Amorji-Nike, Enugu; 102.8 AJASONIC FM, Enugu; 105.5 FM, Cosmo FM; and 826 FRCN (Radio Nigeria 1), Enugu, all of which also operate in Enugu state. New era advertising agencies place their adverts (commercials) through these broadcast media as well. It is no doubt that their major source of income is adverts (commercials) but one important factor that the new era advertising agencies consider most before placing their commercials through them is usually the media’s capability to deliver a quality match with the new advertising. Many of the today broadcast media have invested hugely on various latest sophisticated media technologies in the quest for this. Some operate via internet, cable TV and the likes while some operate 24/7 live programmes. They produce highly catchy and memorable adverts in addition to varied exciting programmes. In line with these parameters however, is the need to assess the capability of Enugu State broadcasting Services’ TV and Radio media in this current study.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
One observed major problem that prompted the carrying out of this study is the poor development state of the Enugu State Broadcasting Services (ESBS) since its inception. ESBS is one of the oldest media houses in Enugu state yet, it is nowhere to be found among the class of new media oriented broadcasting corporations. In this age of technology, its counterparts like Daar Communications Limited, owners of African Independent Television (AIT) and Raypower that started in the 90s are now doing far better than ESBS. They operate with sophisticated ultramodern technologies that match the wants of new era advertising. Many of them can be watched through Cable TV and Internet whereas ESBS cannot. It is no wonder that more adverts are observed placed through some of these technology-based media houses than it is in ESBS. One may view this development problem from the ownership structure perspective of the media houses. ESBS is a government owned media house and operates under the influence of the government. The usual bureaucratic way of doing things in most government parastatals (i.e. do it as instructed or laid down, don’t apply any initiative) might have also been hugely responsible for the poor development in ESBS. This is what is not obtainable at Daar Communications. Dynamism and innovativeness are always welcomed at these privately owned media. Workers with strategic innovations are allowed to give it and those in technical departments are equally allowed to apply it.
Another observed problem that prompted the carrying out of this study is the length of time ESBS programmes are aired compared to their counterparts in the private sector. It could be observed that usually, AIT and Raypower runs 24hrs everyday whereas ESBS hardly run 12hrs programmes a day. After the morning network news at about 7am followed by few frequently repeated commercials, around 12noon, the stations (both radio and tv) go offline until around 4pm or thereabout and by 12am also, they are shutdown for the day. There are many other ugly operational problems of the corporation which cannot be readily mentioned. In view of the observed ones, it is however pertinent to assess the corporation ‘ESBS’ through its TV and Radio media along the specifications of new era advertising in this study. To know if it actually creates a match with what new era advertising demands.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The main objective of this study is to assess the television and radio media in the new era advertising using Enugu State Broadcasting Services as a case study. The specific objectives however include:
- To determine the extent to which ESBS seeks to build a match with new era advertisers’ specifications
- To ascertain the relationship between media value creation and increased new era adverts placement.
- To assess the level of the masses’ perception and loyalty towards ESBS TV and Radio stations in relation to others.
- To determine the influence that ownership and governance structure of ESBS has on its present state of development.
1.4 Research Questions
- To what extent does ESBS seek to build a match with new era advertisers’ specifications?
- What relationship exists between media value creation and increased new era adverts placement?
- What level of difference exists in the masses’ perception and loyalty toward ESBS TV and Radio stations and other TV and Radio stations?
- What influence does the ownership and governance structure of ESBS have on its present state of development?
1.5 Research Hypotheses
- ESBS does not seek to build any match with new era advertisers’ specifications.
- There is no significant relationship between media value creation and increased new era adverts placement.
- There is no significant difference in the masses’ perception and loyalty towards ESBS TV and Radio stations and other TV and Radio stations.
- Ownership and governance structure of ESBS does not have any influence on the present state of development of ESBS.
1.6 Significance of the Study
This study will be found useful to the Enugu state government through its agencies that see the need for reform to any sector of the state. This is because the gap in the present development state of ESBS TV and Radio media and new advertising would be exposed along with the proximate causes and by these, policies can be formulated to correct any investigated lapses.
Another important significance of this study is that it would trigger off the research interest of the ESBS governing board toward creating a match with new era adverts. Similarly, it would educate students of public relations and marketing at higher institutions of learning. Future similar studies can find this study useful as a basis for investigation.
1.7 Scope of the Study
The study is limited to Enugu State Broadcasting Services (ESBS). Since its inception, ESBS is one of the oldest media houses in Enugu state yet, it is nowhere to be found among the class of new media oriented broadcasting corporations. In this age of technology, and also the public within the vicinity of Enugu state, depends greatly on its radio frequency and television channel for information on things happening in the society or environment. This study is comprised of both desk and field research surveys. The desk research survey covered the conceptualisation, theories and models adopted for the entire study while the field research survey covered the workers of the TV and Radio media houses of Enugu State Broadcasting Services. The meaning of advertising, new era advertising, as well as the functions of advertising was conceptualised. Also, advertising media but delimited to only TV and Radio media were equally conceptualised. Two media effects theories: Cultivation Theory and Media Dependency Theory were all also covered in chapter one in this study.
1.8 Limitations of the Study
There is general phenomenon peculiar to any research work. It is apparent that this research work is not excluded. However, in this particular research, the limitation include:
The respondents showed discouraging attitude toward the survey and withheld required information best known to them. Some gave wrong information. These however constituted the limitation suffered by the study.
1.9 Conceptual and Operational definition of Terms
Advertising: This simply means the public promotion of something such as: product, service, idea, business, or event in order to attract or increase interest in it which later results into sales (Adegbite, 2000). In this study, the term advertising is employed to mean the same as given by Adegbite but qualified with new era features driven by technology and modernizations in the today global world. The term “New Era Advertising “therefore means the combination of various transformation technologies to improve the effect of advertising from the traditional persuasive role to a more psychologically driving method. The transformation technologies include those sophisticated gadgets that produce some graphical attractiveness which create a memorable effect on the audience.
Audience: This is a group of people assembled to watch and/or listen to a show, concert, movie, or speech (Allen, 1998). In this study, this group of people are regarded as the masses whose perception and towards ESBS TV and Radio station programmes would be measured and compared to the perception and loyalty they form towards other media like AIT, Raypower, Sort FM, etc.
Media: this comprises of the various means of mass communication considered as a whole including: television, radio, magazines, and newspapers, together with the people involved in their production (Adegbite, 2000). In this study, the term media equally means the same but is used to describe the TV and Radio broadcasting stations through which the masses is reached in advertisement.