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ASSOCIATED GAS FLARING AND RE-INJECTION POLICYMAKING AND IMPLEMENTATION IN NIGERIA (1960-2010)

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
PAGE
Cover Page …………………………………………………………………………..
Title Page …………………………………………………………………………… i
Approval Page ……………………………………………………………………… ii
Dedication ………………………………………………………………………….. iii
Acknowledgement …………………………………………………………………. iv
Table of Contents …………………………………………………………………… vi
List of Tables ………………………………………………………………………. viii
List of Figures ……………………………………………………………………… x
List of Appendices …………………………………………………………………. xii
Acronyms and Abbreviations ……………………………………………………… xiii
Abstract ……………………………………………………………………………. xvii
Declaration ………………………………… ……………………………………… xix
CHAPTERS
ONE: INTRODUCTION………………………………………………………… 1
1.1 Introduction………………………………………………………………………. 1
1.2 Statement of Problem…………………………………………………………….. 8
1.3 Objectives of Study……………………………………………………………… 13
1.4 Significance of Study………………………………………….…………………. 14
1.5 Operational Definitions…………………………………………………………… 15
1.6 Literature Review …………………………………………………………………. 17
1.7 Theoretical Framework of Analysis ……………………………………………… 52
1.8 Hypothesis ……………………………………………………………………….. 62
1.9 Methodology …………………………………………………………………….. 63
TWO: PROBLEMS OF POLICY-MAKING AND IMPLEMENTATION
IN NIGERIA …………………………………………………………………… 71
2.1 Introduction ……………………………………………………………………… 71
2.2 Public Policy: Meaning, Process and Models……………………………………. 71
2.3 Structure of Policy-making in Nigeria …………………………………………… 91
2.4 Problems of Policy-making and Implementation in Nigeria ……………………. 100
2.5 The Role of Experts in Public Policy-making …………………………………… 105
2.6 Summary ………………………………………………………………………… 108
THREE: GAS RE-INJECTION TECHNOLOGY AND CHRONOLOGY OF GAS
FLARING AND RE-INJECTION POLICIES IN NIGERIA AND THE
NIGER DELTA CRISIS ………………………………………………… 110
3.1 Introduction …………………………………………………………………. 110
3.2 Gas Re-injection Technology ……………………………………………….. 110
3.3 Gas Flaring and Reinjection Measures in the Colonial Era (1958 – 1959) …. 116
3.4 Gas Flaring and Reinjection Policy-making after Independence (1960 – 2010)… 118
3.5 Gas Flaring and Niger Delta Crisis ……………………………………………… 126
3.6 Summary ………………………………………………………………………… 133
vii
FOUR: ASSOCIATED GAS REINJECTION POLICY-MAKING AND
IMPLEMENTATION IN NIGERIA (1960-2010) …………………….. 135
4.0 Introduction …………………………………………………………………. 135
4.1 Process of Associated Gas Reinjection Policy-making ……………………. 136
4.2 Actors in Associated Gas Reinjection Policy-making and Implementation … 140
4.3 Manpower Disposition of Federal/State Ministries of Environment in N/Delta 142
4.4 Patterns of Associated Gas Reinjection Policy Implementation in Nigeria … 148
4.5 Case Studies …………………………………..….……………………. ….. 177
4.6 Summary …………………………………………………………………… 191
FIVE: PATTERNS OF CONSULTANCY ON SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY IN
ASSOCIATED GAS REINJECTION POLICY-MAKING AND
IMPLEMENTATION IN NIGERIA ……………………………………… 194
5.0 Introduction ……………………………………………………………………. 194
5.1 Nature of Science and Technology Advisory System in Nigeria ……………… 194
5.2 Associated Gas re-injection Policy-makers’ Consultation/Utilization of Science
And Technology Advice …………………………………………………… 196
5.2.1 Consultative Efforts of Government …………………………………………… 197
5.3 Science and Technology and Gas Reinjection Policy Goals/Alternatives …… 233
5.4 Judiciary and Interpretation of Regulatory Policies/Legislations …………….. 236
5.5 Summary ……………………………………………………………………… 241
SIX: COMPARATIVE COST OF GAS REINJECTION TECHNONOLOGY
AND THE COST OF GAS FLARING TO NIGERIA AND THE NIGER
DELTA …………………………………………………………………… 243
6.1 Introduction ………………………………………………………………….. 243
6.2 Comparative Cost of Gas Reinjection Facility ……………………… 243
6.3 Cost of Gas Flaring to Nigeria and the Niger Delta Region ………… 244
6.4 Consequences of Gas Flaring on the Niger Delta Region …………… 247
6.4.1 Gas Flare-Induced Human Health Problems ………………………… 248
6.4.2 Gas Flare-Induced Vegetation Depletion Problems: Plant Diseases and Species Extinction… 256
6.4.3 Gas Flare-Induced Material Corrosion Problems …………………… 258
6.4.4 Multiplier effects on Socioeconomic Conditions of Oil-bearing Communities … 261
6.5 Case Studies of Gas Flaring Regulatory Regimes: Norwegian and British Models. 281
6.6 Summary ………………………………………………………………………… 300
SEVEN: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS ………… 303
7.1 Summary ….…………………………………………………………………….. 303
7.2 Conclusion ……………………………………………………………………… 307
7.3 Recommendations ……………………………………………………………… 309
BIBLIOGRAPHY……………………………….……………………… 313
APPENDIX………………………………………………………………

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