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BEYOND AGRICULTURAL REVOLUTION AND ECONOMIC DIVERSIFICATION: AN ASSESSMENT OF POLICY IN THE WAKE OF DWINDLING OIL REVENUE

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CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
Foreign aid represents a relatively recent element in the interaction between sovereign states. Most scholars agree that modern foreign aid came into existence only after the Second World War when the United States started to support countries around the world, especially in Europe. Additionally, foreign aid seemingly represents an exception to the prevailing rules of statecraft in which states generally act on the basis of their respective national interests.
Aid, as the term in itself already implies, is usually understood by laymen as having its main goal to help the developing world through inducing economic, social, and political development in the recipient states. Equally, the very words aid or assistance seem to imply a disinterested and altruistic motivation on the part of the donor states. Yet, a closer look at the patterns of aid distribution by donor states, or into the technical literature on the subject quickly reveals that altruism does not seem to constitute the only motivation for aid-giving. (Ian little, Juliet Clifford and Osvaldo Feinstein, 1965), have addressed the confusion surrounding this technology already by stating that ―buying something from a man may help him, but one does not speak of ‗aiding‘ him if it is something that one wants.‖ Hence, the question is posed: What are the intentions and rationales of donor states if the motivation for aid-giving is not purely humanitarian and altruistic? It is in this subject where the main interest of the present work lies.
In recent times, during the presidential administration of Bill Clinton, the American foreign aid program underwent the most fundamental changes in its entire history regarding the amounts of aid allocated to developing countries. Most strikingly, the amounts of Official Development Assistance (ODA) distributed by the United States, if measured in inflation-adjusted 2010 dollars, reached both an all-time minimum as well as a historic peak within less than a decade (1997 with $9 billion and 2005 with $31 billion, respectively). Thus, the subject of interest of the present work is to explain these changes regarding the amounts and the ways of U.S. foreign aid allocation, i.e. to define what the reasons and the motivations were that led the United States to undertake these changes in its foreign aid policies during the time in question here.
To understand the in-depth position of the topic and its motives, we have to understand the direct relationship between the activities of the bill Clinton administration and the exact parts of Africa this aids where targeted to affect more so its necessity at that time. Sub-Saharan Africa is, geographically, the area of the continent of Africa that lies south of the Sahara Desert. Politically, it consists of all African countries that are fully or partially located south of the Sahara (excluding Sudan, even though Sudan sits in the Eastern portion of the Sahara desert).
Poverty, debt, endemic disease and poor governance are critical issues affecting the future of Africa. Economic, strategic, political, and societal interests, intertwined within any one African country, are easily influenced by events across porous borders. Economic growth for the region has been sluggish—barely able to keep pace with an average population growth of 2.6%. As a consequence, 34 of the continent‘s countries now rank among the world‘s least developed nations, compared to only 27 in 1996. Further sapping Africa‘s potential for development is a large and growing HIV/AIDS population—some 25 million people or 70% of the 36 million infected worldwide. The linkage of poverty and terrorism only add urgency to the rising problem. Ideas of how best to develop Africa change frequently as the years pass. Parts of Africa are potentially rich and prosperous; others are poor and likely to remain so for many years. Some areas are inviting and accessible; others are forbidding and inaccessible. Although……….

1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The problem statement of the project is drawn from the eminent need of Sub-Saharan Africa in areas of growth crucial to development ranging from. The project aims to answer the need to why did the Clinton administration attempt to aid Sub-Saharan Africa? As said earlier it was only eminent the sub-Saharan Africa faced tons of downturns to economic growth then, some of which were: underdevelopment, lack of funds and effects of war.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The objective of the study is to assess the U.S aids to Sub-Saharan Africa during the Bill Clinton administration. However, the following are the specific objectives of the study, which are to:
1. Analyze the motivations behind U.S aids to Sub-Saharan Africa.
2. Examine the challenges and opportunities of the U.S aids to Sub-Saharan Africa.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
In relation to the objectives of the study, based on the research problem, the following questions were answered in this study: 1. What are the motivations behind U.S. aids to Sub-Saharan Africa during the Bill Clinton Administration?
2. What are the challenges and opportunities of the U.S. aids to Sub-Saharan Africa?
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The result of this study will be of great importance to international relations and diplomacy students and foreign scholars, as they require this work for further learning. Similarly, political researchers and students of higher citadels of learning would also benefit from this research work as the conceptual clarification and theoretical framework of this work would enhance their knowledge and understanding of the subject matter, thus serving as a basis inspired through simple action to carry out further studies.
1.6 SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS
The study was undertaken to ascertain the U.S. aids to Sub-Saharan Africa during the Bill Clinton Administration, the study would therefore be limited to the Bill Clinton administration. Data for this study would be gathered from material through the use of secondary data. Meanwhile, a major limitation to this study is inadequate time because the time frame for this research is not enough as attention has to be given to other courses required by this programme. Another limitation is not getting enough materials for the research of this work.
1.7 ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY
This research work contains five chapters in which chapter one contains the introduction to the
study and chapter two will be the literature review containing the conceptual clarification and
theoretical framework. Chapter three will contain research methodology that will be used during the course of the study. Chapter four will focus on data analysis of the research carried out and
Chapter five will contain the summary and conclusion alongside recommendation to the study.
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
(i) Aid:
Aid refers to an act or result of helping and providing assistance.
(ii) Foreign aid:
Foreign aid refers to money, food, or other resources given or lent by one country to another. It can also be defined as the international transfer capital, goods, or services from a country or international organization for the benefit of the recipient country or its population. Aid can be economic, military, or emergency humanitarian (e.g., aid given following natural disasters).
(iii) Sub-Saharan Africa:
Sub-Saharan Africa is geographically referred to as the area of the continent of Africa that lies South of the Sahara Desert. Politically, it consists of all African countries that are fully or partially located south of the Sahara.
(iv) Administration:
Administration refers to the group of individuals who are in charge of creating and enforcing rules and regulations, or those in leadership positions who complete important tasks

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