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BUDGET IMPLEMENTATION AND THE ACHIEVEMENT OF MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS (MDGS) – RELATED PROGRAMMES IN ANAMBRA STATE, NIGERIA (2004 – 2010)

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
Approval Page – – – – – – – – – i
Certification – – – – – – – – – ii
Dedication – – – – – – – – – – iii
Acknowledgement – – – – – – – – iv
Abstract – – – – – – – – – – vii
Table of Contents – – – – – – – – ix
List of Graphs – – – – – – – – – xiii
List of Tables – – – – – – – – – xiv
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background to the Study- – – – – – 1
1.2 Statement of the Problem- – – – – – 7
1.3 Objectives of the Study- – – – – – – 14
1.4 The Significance of the Study- – – – – – 15
1.5 Scope and Limitations of the Study – – – – – 18
1.5.1 The Scope of the Study – – – – – – 18
1.5.2 The Limitations of the Study- – – – – – 18
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Literature Review- – – – – – – – 21
2.1.1 Nature and Purpose of Budgeting- – – – 22
2.1.2 Comparing Budgetary Process in Selected African
Countries with Nigeria- – – – – – 27
2.1.3 Budgets as Basis for Accountability: The Money/ Results
Connection- – – – – – – – 33
2.1.4 Performance Monitoring for Budget Management- – 38
xii
2.1.5 Channeling Resources to the Poor: Improving
Efficiency of Public Spending – – – – – 42
2.1.6 Public Expenditure Management and Budget
Implementation- – – – – – – 46
2.1.6.1 The Nigerian Experience- – – – – 49
2.1.6.2 Efforts to Reform Public Expenditure Management 54
2.1.7 The Millennium Development Goals and the Challenges
Implementation in Nigeria – – – – – 57
2.1.7.1 Financing Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) – 63
2.1.8 Development, the Rights to Development and the Millennium
Development Goals (MDGs)- – – – – – 74
2.1.8.1 Synthesis of the Literature Review- – – – 84
2.1.8.2 Gap in Existing Literature- – – – – 85
2.2 Theoretical Framework – – – – – – – 86
2.2.1 The Performance Based Budgeting Framework- – 88
2.2.2 The Tenets of the Framework – – – – – 92
2.2.3 Application of the Framework to the Study- – – 93
2.3 Hypotheses- – – – – – – – – 97
2.4 Operationalization of key concepts- – – – – 100
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH PROCEDURE AND STUDY AREA
3.1 Study Area – – – – – – – – 100
3.2 Study Population – – – – – – – – 108
3.2.1 Sample Size and Sample Procedure – – – – – 108
3.3 Sources and Methods of Data Collection – – – – 109
3.3.1 Secondary Sources – – – – – – – 109
3.3.2 Interviews – – – – – – – – – 109
xiii
3.4 Validity and Reliability of the Measuring Instruments – – 111
3.5 Methods of Data Presentation and Analysis – – – – 112
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND
FINDINGS
4.1 Introduction – – – – – – – – 120
4.2 Data Presentation and Analysis – – – – – 120
4.2.1 The Correlation between Education MDGs
Indicators and Expenditures on Education – – – – 120
4.2.2 Linear Combinations for Canonical Correlations for Education
Variables – – – – – – – – – 130
4.2.3 The Correlation between Health MDGs Indicators and Health
Expenditures- – – – – – – – 134
4.2.3 Linear Combinations for Canonical Correlations for Health
Variables – – – – – – – – – 140
4.3 Analysis of the Spending Behaviour of the State- – – 164
CHAPTER FIVE: DISCUSSION
5.0 Discussion – – – – – – – – – 169
5.1 Relationship between Budget Implementation and the achievement
of MDGs – related programmes in Anambra State – – – 169
5.1.1 Spending Pattern and Budget Orientation of the State- – 178
CHAPTER SIX
6.0 SUMMARY, RECOMMENDATIONS AND CONCLUSION 184
6.1 Summary- – – – – – – – – 184
6.2 Recommendations – – – – – – – – 186
xiv
6.3 Conclusion – – – – – – – – – 192
Bibliography- – – – – – – – – 198
Appendices

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