“…I see racism in stores being sold as cream, on television as movies and in church as baptismal name and many other places we all know but refuse to acknowledge. The labours of our heroes past have already gone in vain because our mentality has been colonized…I hope that either the world accepts us or we accept ourselves…”
1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
According to Western State centre (2012), during the reformation of the 16th and 17th century, one of the key questions among religious hierarchy was whether blacks and Indians had souls and were humans. This was at the time when Europeans were freshly exposed to Africans and people from North and South America. The question brought a division between the catholic and the protestant. However, the catholic was the first to come up with an answer. The catholic agreed that Blacks had souls and therefore it became an offence in most Catholic colonies to kill a slave without reason, (Western State Centre dismantling racism project 2012). Due to the importance and necessity of slavery, religious was used to justify slavery and racism as people of color were classified as pagans and soulless. The conversion of a large number of people of color to Christianity and the eventual decline in importance and power of religion and religious leaders, the need arises to employ a new way to promote racism so as to justify slavery. This eventually led to the employment of biological, zoological geographical and botanical theories to promote and justify slavery and by implication, racism.
Europe in the 19th century became developed in sciences and social sciences like never before. It was during this period that Darwin (1859) published ―The Origin of Species‖, where he analyzed and explained the evolution process of man (as cited in Western State center dismantling racism project 2012). Although, it is widely believed that Darwin theory itself wasn‘t racial but philosophers and social scientist used it to promote, enhance and justify racism. It was later called Social Darwinism. JC Prichard (1838) during his lecture on the ―Extinction of Human Race‖ was reported to have said the savage race couldn‘t be saved because it was the law of nature for only the fittest to survive (as cited in Western State Center dismantling racism project 2012). His point was made clearer by W. Winwood Reade (1864) and I quote;
“England and France will rule Africa; Africans will dig the ditches and water the desert. It will be hard work and the Africans will probably become extinct. We must learn to look at the result with composure…law of nature that the weak must be devoured by the strong
(Cited in Western State Centre dismantling racism project 2012).
This strongly, but sadly points to how Africans were seen. Africans were dying of diseases, poverty but mostly hardship and hard labor not to mention slavery imposed on them by the white men and all they could do was to justify it by the law of nature (survival of the fittest).
Fredrick Farrar (1866), as cited in Western State Centre dismantling racism project (2012) during his lecture on ―Aptitude of Race‖, divided race into 3:
1. Savage (All Africans and people of color)
2. Semi-Civilized (Chinese)
3. Civilized (Europe, Aryans, ETC)
When the survival of the fittest theory could not really totally justify racism, it was time to forge another theory. A famous English anatomist, Robert Knox (1850) went way further to prove that people of color were intellectually inferior. It was later discovered that his argument was based on an experiment he conducted on the autopsy of only but one man of color (as cited in Western State Center dismantling reason project 2012). This time, it was based on intelligence. This theory in conjunction with other theories brought about the Eugenics –an effect to breed better humans by encouraging the reproduction of people with good genes and discouraging those with bad genes from reproducing. They were said to fight to keep racial, ethnic and regional groups separated. This was the true story behind the Holocaust perpetrated by Adolf Hitler in Nazis Germany, not to mention the United States which was said to have about 20,000 students focused on the Eugenics in 1928 (western state centre 2012).
When the concept of intellectual inferiority could no longer hold water, a new theory had to be developed. The third world which at first was a harmless term for all the non-aligned (mostly African) countries during the cold war between first world (NATO) led by USA and second world (Warsaw Pact) led by USSR became associated with the (underdeveloped) developing countries of Africa. Third world lost it initial meaning and became synonymous with Africa pointing to the underdevelopment, wars, poverty and crime many believe is an unbeatable part of the black continent. Third world which was Africa, was synonymous with poverty, backwardness crime and war and most countries claimed to be sending huge amounts of money to Africa as aids and over exaggerating and over publicizing wars, crime and poverty in Africa which triggers hatred among the citizens of those countries who believe their government is not doing enough for them but sending it to Africa.,……………
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
Racism always create problems for the countries where they occur, likewise, Unconscious racism, it has had largely negative effects on China‘s relations with people of color but it mostly psychologically and mentally affect people of color (especially Africans). Racism seems to be a major challenge in China‘s effort to develop and the presence of unconscious racism has worsened the already threatening social situation of the country, this is because most Chinese believe they are not racist while in fact, they harbor unconscious racism. This is supported by Marketus (2013) claim that it is difficult to get a job as a person of color in China, and the undying love of the Chinese for whiteness, makes those with dark skin feel insecure and inferior or unaccepted. It is therefore important to prove the presence of unconscious racism in China and the extent of the impact of Unconscious Racism on China‘s relations with people of color, and select from the plethora of suggested solutions to the situation by various observers, the most effective strategy to be employed by the Chinese government, people of color and indeed the international community in countering the manifestation of unconscious racism consciously.
1.3 AIM AND OBJECTIVE OF STUDY
The aim of this study is to examine the impact of Unconscious racism on persons of color (mostly Africans) and on the relationship between Africans and Chinese. This is with the view to suggest measures towards improving the views of different people in the study area.
The objectives of this study therefore, are;1. To examine Unconscious racism and it manifestation
2. To establish the presence of unconscious racism in China
3. To identify the most effective conscious tactic(s) to be employed by the Chinese government, people of color and the international community as a whole, in tackling unconscious racism.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1. What is unconscious racism and how does it manifest?
2. What are the evidence that there is unconscious racism in China
3. What are the necessary strategies to be considered for discontinuing unconscious racism in China?
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY
Since the ascendance of Barrack Obama into the Whitehouse, several scholars and writers are of the view that racism, in all its forms, have been finally laid to rest in the grave of history. My experience in China as a person of color, introduce me to a different kind of racism; the unconscious type. This type, I realize is more devastating and painful than the former; the conscious type. Having experienced it first hand, I am determine to expose this unnoticed form of racism and the devastating effect it has on those experiencing it as well as create awareness. The essence of this study therefore, is to infer from the understanding of the concepts that racism still exist especially in China in a subtle form, and to expose the evil of unconscious racism on people of color (Africans) and suggest the most effective and efficient measures which ought to be adopted by the internationally committee in its task of maintaining peace in the world by