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COMPARATIVE PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSES OF METHANOLIC AND AQUEOUS LEAF EXTRACTS OF THREE MEDICINAL PLANTS USED IN PLANT DISEASE CONTROL.

Topic Description

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page i
Certification ii
Dedication iii
Acknowledgement iv
Table of Contents v-viii
List of Tables ix
List of Figures x
List of Plates xi
Abstract xii
CHAPTER ONE:
1.0 Introduction 1
1.1 Justification for the research 2
1.1 Aim and objectives of the research 3
vi
CHAPTER TWO:
2.0 Literature Review 4
2.1 Uses of plant extracts 4
2.2 Uses of chemicals as fungicides 5
2.3 Phytochemical analysis 6
2.4 Description and uses of the test plants 7
CHAPTER THREE:
3.0 Materials and Methods 16
3.1 Collection and identification of plant materials 16
3.2 Preparation of plant samples 16
3.3 Preparation of plant extracts 16
3.3.1 Methanolic extract preparation 17
3.3.2 Aqueous extract preparation 17
3.4 Phytochemical screening 18
3.5 Quantitative phytochemical analysis 18
3.5.1 Test for alkaloids 18
3.5.2 Test for flavonoids 18
3.5.3 Test for tannins 19
3.5.4 Test for saponins 19
vii
3.5.5 Test for glycosides 19
3.5.6 Test for carbohydrates 19
3.5.7 Test for steroids 20
3.5.8 Test for reducing sugars 20
3.5.9 Test for terpenoids 20
3.6 Quantitative phytochemical analysis 20
3.6.1 Determination of total alkaloid content 20
3.6.2 Determination of total flavonoid content 20
3.6.3 Determination of total saponin content 21
3.6.4 Determination of total glycoside content 21
3.6.5 Determination of total reducing sugars content 22
3.6.6 Determination of total tannin content 22
3.6.7 Determination of total carbohydrates content 22
3.6.8 Determination of total steroids content 23
3.6.9 Determination of total terpenoids content 23
3.7 Research design 23
3.8 Method of data analysis 23
viii
CHAPTER FOUR:
4.0 Results 24
4.1 Qualitative phytochemical analysis of aqueous leaf
extracts of Chromolaena odorata, Ocimum gratissimum
and Carica papaya 24
4.2 Qualitative phytochemical analysis of methanolic
leaf extracts of C. odorata, O. gratissimum and C. papaya 26
4.3 Quantitative phytochemical analysis of aqueous leaf extracts
of C. odorata, O. gratissimum and C. papaya 28
4.4 Quantitative phytochemical analysis of methanolic leaf extracts
of C. odorata, O. gratissimum and C. papaya 30
4.5 Comparison of secondary metabolites in C. odorata,
O. gratissimum and C. papaya 32
4.6 Effect of treatments (solvents) on secondary metabolites 34
CHAPTER FIVE
5.0 Discussion and Conclusion 36
References

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