10,000 3,000

Product Description



1.1     Background

Livestock industry in Nigeria is ridden with myriad of problems, which have resulted to a gross shortage of meat and other animal products (Nworgu, 2002). The animal protein intake shortages in Nigeria observed in the early 1970s has progressively worsened till date. The protein intake of an average Nigerian is about 53.8g with only 6.0 – 8.4g per caput per day of animal origin (Egbunike, 1997). CBN (2003) revealed that North America, Western and Eastern European countries consume 66, 39 and 33g of animal protein per head per day respectively; while an average Nigerian consumes 7.5g which is below the recommended level of 27g per caput per day. The sub-optimal consumption of animal protein by a large percentage of Nigerian population has challenged not only livestock farmers, but also researchers and policy makers.

Poultry industry is one of the major sources of animal protein and offers the potential for bridging the protein deficiency gap existing in the country. However, the inadequate supply of several grains and protein concentrates for poultry feeding and the keen competition between man and animal for same have become the major obstacle in poultry industry development in Nigeria (PAN, 1985; Ologhobo, 1992). Feed constitute the dominant input in animal production ranging from 65-75% of the total cost of production. Similarly, feed ingredients account for over 90% of compound feed industry. Therefore, the relationship between feed ingredient and animal product output is both direct and obvious. To depend on alternative sources of ingredients, especially when it encourages a shift to ingredients for which there is less competition, may help if the later is cheap and sufficiently available (Oluyemi and Roberts, 1979). The future of efficient and profitable poultry production would, therefore, depend on finding cheaper and alternative energy and protein sources to conventional protein and energy feed ingredients.

Recently, much effort is being made to find the possibilities of utilizing agro-industrial by-products in poultry nutrition (Henuk and Dingle, 2003). This could lead to the reduction in the use of conventional feed ingredients such as maize, soybean, sorghum, groundnut, wheat etc (El Boushy and Van der Poel, 2000) and help reduce pollution problems, decrease feed cost and increase livestock production.

Agro-industrial by-products in Nigeria vary from primary processing of farm produce wastes to wastes from agro-allied industries. Some of these wastes are left unutilized, which often cause environmental pollution and hazard. Those that are utilized do not have their full potentials harnessed. Agro-industrial by-products which can be of tremendous use in the livestock industry for feeding animals include maize pap waste and rice milling waste etc.

Since energy is one of the most expensive segments of a poultry ration, accurate knowledge of the available energy content of feedstuffs is necessary to formulate the most economical least-cost rations and to achieve profitable production. Supplying adequate energy to birds is one of the most important aspects of successful management program. It is by knowing and meeting the nutrient requirements of the bird that their full genetic potentialities can be realized.

Apparent metabolizable energy (AME) is the most widely used method for evaluating poultry feedstuffs for available energy. However, since Sibbald (1976) developed a bioassay for true metabolizable energy (TME), a considerable amount of research has been conducted to investigate the assay’s applicability. Sibbald’s method has several advantages over the previous AME assays. It is simple, rapid, and inexpensive. Besides its reported flexibility, reproducibility, and data quality (Sibbald, 1976), the TME assay can be extended to measure bioavailable amino acids (Likuski and Dorrel, 1979; Sibbald, 1979) and lipids (Sibbald and Kramer, 1978) in feedstuffs.

Although literature is replete of the importance of energy in poultry nutrition, there are two feedstuffs of regional interest that require evaluation for their nutrient composition especially their energy content. For such feedstuffs, knowledge of their available energy will enhance their usefulness in poultry feeding.



1.2     Statement of the Problem

Most developing countries are facing difficulties in providing sufficient food for their population. The cost of feed is very high and in recent years the price of conventional or basic feeding ingredients has tremendously increased. This has made livestock production very expensive. The growth rate of livestock sector in Nigeria is still below the potentials of the country’s natural and human resources due to high cost of agricultural inputs such as feed and modern equipment.       

Ologhobo (1992) highlighted the problems facing animal feed and poultry production in the tropics; amongst which is poor feed quality and escalating prices. It is the need of the time to utilize unconventional feeds like agro-industrial by-products to make a balanced feed especially for poultry production efficiently. Various studies have delved into the area of grain substitution by agro-industrial by-products, not directly used by man, in animal diets (Farrell et al., 1991). However, information appears minimal on nutritional evaluation of these agro-industrial by-products.


  • Objectives of the study

The main objective of this study is to determine the true metabolizable energy of maize pap waste and rice milling waste. The specific objectives of the study include the following:

  • To determine the growth response of broiler birds to diets containing graded levels of maize pap waste and rice milling waste
  • To determine the effects of dietary inclusion of maize pap waste and rice milling waste on internal organs and nutrient retention of broiler birds
  • To determine the cost effectiveness of feeding broiler starters and finishers with diets containing maize pap waste and rice milling waste.



1.4     Justification

The science of nutrition involves providing a balance of nutrients that best meets the animal’s needs for growth, maintenance and production. For economic reasons, this supply of nutrients should be at least cost, and so we must supply only enough for requirements, without there being any major excesses. It is very difficult and very expensive to supply all nutrients at the exact nutrient needs rather we have to oversupply some nutrients in practical situations, in an attempt to meet the limiting nutrients. In poultry diets these limiting nutrients are usually energy and some of the essential amino acids, such as methionine and lysine.

           There is an urgent need to increase feed sources of our poultry enterprises because limited feed resource is presently a major problem. The production of livestock feed in common use such as maize, groundnut, soybean meal etc. have not met the demand for human consumption and so leaves inadequate surplus for large scale poultry production in the tropics.

Agro-industrial by-products and crop residues represent a vast animal feed resource, which are still largely unexploited. Although considerable research have been, and are being carried out on the potentials of these by-products, very little effective practical applications have been achieved. This research work was designed to determine the true metabolizable energy of maize pap waste and rice milling waste. It also investigated the comparative effects of diets containing these agro-industrial by-products on growth performance of broiler birds. Broiler have been chosen for use as experimental animals for this research because of their ability to grow fast and attain slaughter weight within eight weeks can be achieved, then considerable increases in animal production will follow