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ECOWAS AND ARMS CONTROL IN WEST AFRICA; A FOCUS ON THE NIGER-DELTA AMNESTY

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

TITLE PAGE …………………………………………………………………………………ii

APPROVAL PAGE ……………………………………………………… iError! Bookmark not defined.

DEDICATION………………………………………………………………………………….iii

ACKNOWLEDGMENT……………………………………………………………………………………………. iv

ABSTRACT …………………………………………………………………………………..iv

TABLE OF CONTENTS …………………………………………………………………………………………… vi

CHAPTER ONE ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 1

1.0 INTRODUCTION ……………………………………………………………………………………… 1

1.1 Statement of problem …………………………………………………………………………………… 4

1.2 Objective of Study ………………………………………………………………………………………. 9

1.3 Significance of the study ………………………………………………………………………………. 9

1.4 Literature Review………………………………………………………………………………………. 10

1.5 Theoretical framework ………………………………………………………………………………… 26

1.6 Hypothesis…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 28

1.7 Method of data collection/analysis ………………………………………………………………. 28

Conclusion, summary and recommendations ……………………………… 29

REFERENCES ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 34

CHAPTER TWO: ARMS PROLIFERATIN IN NIGER DELTA AND NIGERIA ………….. 41

2.1 Circulation of small arms ……………………………………………………………………………. 41

2.2 LEGAL SMALL ARMS…………………………………………………………………………….. 42

2.2.1 The Military ………………………………………………………………………………………. 43

2.2.2 The police………………………………………………………………………………………….. 46

2.3 ILLEGAL SMALL ARMS …………………………………………………………………………. 48

2.3.1 Entry points and transit routes …………………………………………………………………… 48

2.3.2 Sources of illegal small arms …………………………………………………………………….. 50

2.3.3 Craft production ………………………………………………………………………………………. 54

2.3.4 Measuring the Illegal Trade ………………………………………………………………………. 58

2.4 DEMAND FOR SMALL ARMS ……………………………………………………………….. 61

2.4.1 Perceptions of number of guns in Rivers ……………………………………………….. 62

2.4.2 Perceptions of number of guns in Nigeria ……………………………………………… 62

2.4.3 Armed violence in Nigeria …………………………………………………………………… 63

2.4.4 Trends in press reporting …………………………………………………………………….. 64

CHAPTER THREE: RELATIVE DEPRIVATON AND ARMS PROLIFERATION IN THE

NIGER DELTA …………………………………………………………………………. 66

3.1 POVERTY AND ARMS CONFLICT IN THE NIGER DELTA …………………….. 66

3.2 ARMED GROUPS IN THE NIGER DELTA ……………………………………………….. 78

3.2.1 The Bush Boys …………………………………………………………………………………… 78

3.2.2 Deebam …………………………………………………………………………………………….. 82

3.2.3 Deewell …………………………………………………………………………………………….. 86

3.2.4 Icelander (also known as Germans and NDVS) ……………………………………… 88

3.2.5 The Movement for the Emancipation of the …………………………………………… 95

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Niger Delta (MEND) ………………………………………………………………………………………. 95

3.2.6 Niger Delta People’s Volunteer Force (NDPVF) ……………………………………. 97

3.2.7 Niger Delta Strike Force (NDSF) ……………………………………………………….. 100

3.2.8 The Outlaws …………………………………………………………………………………….. 103

CHAPTER FOUR: DISARMANMENTAND AMNESTY PROGRAMME EFFORTS IN

THENIGER DELTA

4.1 DISARMAMENT EFFORT IN NIGER DELTA ………………………………………… 106

4.2 CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF THE 2009 AMNESTY (WEAPONS COLLECTION

PROGRAMME) ………………………………………………………………………………………………… 114

4.2.1 THE RECENT WARRI BOMB BLAST …………………………………………….. 118

4.2.2 The Nigerian Salw Control System …………………………………………………….. 119

4.2.3 NIGERIAN LAWS AND REGULATIONS ……………………………………….. 120

4.2.4 Implementation And Enforcement Challenges ……………………………………… 121

4.3 LEGAL MEASURES TO ADDRESS SMALL ARMS ………………………………… 122

4.3.1 A split strategy of ‘carrot and stick’ in the Niger Delta ………………………….. 125

4.3.2 The ‘carrot’: development programmes……………………………………………….. 126

4.3.3 The ‘stick’: a strategy of militarization ………………………………………………… 129

4.3.4 The role of the United States ……………………………………………………………… 130

4.3.5 Security sector reform: the police force ……………………………………………….. 131

5.1 Summary ………………………………………………………………………………………………… 137

5.2 Conclusion ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 137

5.3 Recommendations ……………………………………………………………………………………. 138

REFERENCES ………………………………………………………………………………………… 141

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