According to (McConville et.al, 2014) Sanitation management refers to the practices and procedures necessary to ensure a clean and safe workplace. Proper sanitation is important in any work or job, though it is especially valuable and often forced by the law especially in food services, and health services.
A research study by the (Mendoza, 2009) explained that having a business takes a lot of permits before you start to operate especially having a market stall. Before having a business you’ll have to get a sanitary permit to operate a business especially if your business is under food services, agriculture, selling of perishable goods and retail of foods in the market. Here in the Philippines, sanitation management in one of the issues that is encountered daily in the marketplaces.
According to (wisegeek.com, 2012) the fastest-growing industry in the world is in hospitality field that focuses on customer satisfaction. Part of this is the food service industry that is improving its existence for the past years. In hospitality industry, there are various kinds of businesses and one of them is “stalls” that is not properly sanitized yet affordable and delicious. One major concern with this is the food safety. Food safety guides and educates people on the advantages and disadvantages of eating this kind of food. Food-borne illness is one of the main worries when it comes to eating street foods, which people do not want to experience. With this, the researchers want to provide knowledge and effective solutions to prevent food-borne illness and how to apply food safety practices. The researchers used various approaches in order to know the vendors’ perception on food safety, which are the descriptive quantitative and qualitative approaches.
Another study by (Cichy, 2010) proves that customers’ satisfaction is the main goal of every business aside from making profit and income. A business with good sanitation and has knowledge about food safety practices have the advantage of satisfying costumers needs because, first a customer always look for these factors in choosing a stall in a market, such as well-maintained workplace, sanitized stalls and free from any illness especially on meat and vegetables stalls.
An article provided by (withlocals.com, 2012) included that the Philippines is known for a unique style market where people depends on the public markets to buy their raw meat, fish, vegetables and many more. These market is the source of all dishes that Filipinos would eat every single day. As a stall vendor you need to satisfy every costumers needs. There’s a lot of factors to be considered such as the pricing of the good, the completeness of your products offered and the major factor that many of the customers look for is the sanitation and cleanliness of the stalls. First of all sanitation is a must for every vendor to consider. Sanitation plays a huge role in making income, because in having a good sanitation to your business give a huge boost, it keeps the customers coming back to your stall. Stall owners should always ensure the sanitation of their stall and should comply with the regulations of sanitary codes of the government.
Another study by (Dupree, 2015) stated that without food safety and sanitation measures, human health can be at risk because of food-borne illnesses from bacteria and other harmful contaminants. Safety sanitation involves managing food handling methods and facility cleaning methods to prevent these illnesses. This includes managing procedures for food preparation, cooking, storage and serving and for controlling contamination from equipment and facilities used in food service. Federal and state agencies provide rules, standards and guidance on food safety sanitation management.
Additionally, (Duncan et al., 2010) emphasize that poor knowledge of sanitation and lack of expertise in sanitary practices are the biggest hindrances that a developing country faces just like the Philippines. Implementation of sanitation policy should be strictly implemented all over the country. If the sanitation policy is implemented, then the locals should follow especially the public markets. Because some of the public markets in the country does not follow and does not implement their sanitation management while operating there businesses.
Effective Sanitation management requires skilled workers and supervisors to ensure that facility maintains cleanliness and meets all sanitation codes. Duties of sanitation workers may include physically cleaning facilities, training and teaching employees, owners and vendors in sanitary practices and conducting regular inspections (vedamsbooks.com, 2013).
Therefore, stall vendors/owners should strictly follow the guidelines of sanitary codes of the Philippines to avoid any further problems in operating their business. Every stall vendors/owners shall provide the sanitation needs and other essentials to maintaining the cleanliness and safety of the stalls. And lastly is that the stall vendors shall educate themselves with the proper handling of sanitation management because, having all of these should give them huge boost in making such a good income (lawphil.net, 2013).
Similarly, (Wasike, 2010) discusses that the requirement for hygiene and sanitation is core to any hospitality industry world over. Any lapses in the theory and practice will always witness hundreds of thousands of people suffer from food poisoning, water borne infections and other health threats to both staff and guests at the hospitality industries.
CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK OF THE STUDY
Sanitation Management is of the commonly known factors in selling goods and making income. The effects of it may cause changes in the sanitary practices of the public market, the implementation of rules and regulations regarding to the sanitation codes. It will also bring positive changes in increasing the customers and the income of the owners and the improvements of sanitary methods and practices. The independent variable is the effects of sanitation management and the dependent variable is the income of stall vendors/owners. This conceptual framework shows the concepts and relationships of the variables with one another in the study shown in this map.
|Figure 1.1 CONCEPT MAP about SANITATION MANAGEMENT|
THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK OF THE STUDY
This study was anchored on the theory of Frederick Taylor stressing that workers’ productivity can be increased through effective work methods. Taylor’s attention was directed at the activities of all managers describing that the practices of management were an activity common to any undertakings in the business. Through this concept the researchers would like to find out the sanitary practices of selected food stall owners and vendors in Santolan Public Market in terms of purchasing, receiving, storage, inventory and safety.
Scientific Management Theory
This theory of management which seeks the use of scientific methods to find the best way of performing a task or job. Although scientific management as a distinct theory or school of thought was obsolete by the 1930s, most of its themes are still important parts of industrial engineering and management today. These include analysis; synthesis; logic; rationality; empiricism; work ethic; efficiency and elimination of waste; standardization of best practices; disdain for tradition preserved merely for its own sake or to protect the social status of particular workers with particular skill sets; the transformation craft production into mass production; and knowledge transfer between workers and from workers into tools, processes, and documentation.
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The study evaluated the possible beneficiaries and this study will be useful to the following:
The Students may use this study to give them greater knowledge and deeper understanding about the importance of good sanitation and hygiene and it will give them awareness not only with the income of the owners but also the needs of sanitation as a consumers.
The Consumers/Customers may be useful to the to give the knowledge and awareness to the in choosing their market or stalls to buy goods considering the factors of a customer in buying products in clean market place that will prevent them from danger.
The Market Administrators may use this study to review on solving problems in sanitation and improve their sanitation throughout the market. This market administrators may review the existing rules and regulations regarding to the implementation of sanitation in the market place.
The Stall owners may consider these findings in study to have a deeper understanding that sanitation management is a necessary increasing a business especially in a public market. This study will further benefit the owners in making income and strengthening their relationships with the customers.
The Local Government Units (LGUs) may find that sanitation management is necessary on making developments and improvements to the implementation of sanitation and food safety in their public markets and their surrounding areas.
And lastly, The Future Researchers may use the results and findings of the study who would like to pursue topics that are closely related to our study.
SCOPE AND DELIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
The study will cover a small sample approximately 10stall owners of Santolan Public Market that will be interviewed in this research.
The study investigated on the possible of the effects of sanitation management to the income of stall vendors of Santolan Public Market.
The study includes the financial details of the business owners, such as the monthly income of the business and what kind of business their having. It also includes their methods or practices in managing the sanitation of business.
The study will also gather information using questionnaires and interviews to know the effects of sanitation management to the income of the business and to make the research sufficient.
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The purpose of this phenomenological study is to determine the possible effects of sanitation management to the income of stall vendors/owners of Santolan Public Market.
This study should answer the following questions:
- What are effects of sanitation management to the income stall owners?
- What is/are the greatest factors that affect the sanitation management of the stalls?
- Why do stall owners implement their sanitation managements?
- Why the presence of sanitation do affect the customer’s choice where to buy?
DEFINITION OF TERMS
For the purpose of clarification, the important following terms used in this study have been defined.
Business. It refers to the practice of making one’s living by engaging in commerce (Merriam Webster Dictionary).
Food. It is a material usually of plant or animal origin that contains essential nutrients, such as carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, or minerals, and is ingested and assimilated by an organism to produce energy, stimulate growth, and maintain life (Dictionary.com, 2017)
Food-Borne Disease. Refers to any illness resulting from the food spoilage of contaminated food, pathogenic bacteria, viruses, or parasites that contaminate food, as well as toxins such as poisonous mushrooms and various species of beans that have not been boiled for at least 10 minutes (Wikipedia,2016).
Health. The state of being free from illness or injury (Oxford’sEnglish Dictionary,2017).
Hygiene. Is a set of practices performed to preserve health According to the World Health Organization (WHO), “Hygiene refers to conditions and practices that help to maintain health and prevent the spread of diseases” (Wikipedia, 2017).
Income. Is the consumption and savings opportunity gained by an entity within a specified timeframe, which is generally expressed in monetary terms. However, for households and individuals, “income is the sum of all the wages, salaries, profits, interest payments, rents, and other forms of earnings received… in a given period of time (Wikipedia, 2017).
Management. The organization and coordination of the activities of a business in order to achieve defined objectives (BusinessDictionary.com, 2014).
Public Market. Is a year-round, carefully crafted, intentional and diverse medley of owner-operated shops, stalls and/ or “daytables”. Public Markets exist to fulfil a public purpose, showcase a community’s unique character and culture while serving its everyday shopping needs (PublicMarketDevelopment.com, 2018)
Safety. The state of being “safe” (from French sauf), the condition of being protected from harm or other non-desirable outcomes. Safety can also refer to the control of recognized hazards in order to achieve an acceptable level of risk (Wikipedia, 2017).
Sanitation. Conditions relating to public health, especially the provision of clean drinking water and adequate sewage disposal (Oxford’s English Dictionary, 2017).