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ELECTORAL VIOLENCE IN NIGERIA: THE CASE OF ANAMBRA STATE GUBERNATORIAL ELECTIONS (2003 AND 2007)

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
TITLE PAGE ……………………………………………………….……..i
CERTIFICATION PAGE …………………………………………………….ii
APPROVAL PAGE…………………………………………………………………..iv
DEDICATION ……………………………………………………………..v
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT …………………………………………….…..vi
PREFACE ………………………………………………………….……..viii
TABLE OF CONTENTS ……………………………………………..…..x
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the study……………………………………………………..1
1.2 Statement of Problem……………………………………………………..6
1.3 Objective of Study…………………………………………….…………..7
1.4 Significance of Study……………………………………….…..………..8
1.5 Scope of Study……………………………………………….…………..8
1.6 Literature Review…………………………………………….…………..9
1.6.1 Electoral Violence in Nigeria………………..…………………….9
1.6.2 Political Class and Electoral Violence……………………………12
1.6.3 Law Enforcement Agencies and Electoral Violence……………13
1.6.4 The Management of Elections By Electoral Body (INEC) and
Electoral Violence……………………………………….…………15
1.7 Theoretical Perspective………………………………………………….17
1.8 Hypothesis……………………………………………………..…………..18
1.9 Methodology………………………………………………………………19
CHAPTER TWO: HISTORY OF ELECTORAL VIOLENCE IN NIGERIA
2.1 The TIV Riots of 1960/1964………………………………….……….…20
2.2 The Federal or General Elections of 1964……………………………..21
2.3 The Western Election of 1965…………………………………..………23
2.4 The General Elections of 1983…………………………………………24
2.5 The General Elections of 1993…………………………………………….25
2.6 The 1998/1999 General Elections…………………………………….26
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CHAPTER THREE: ELECTORAL VIOLENCE DURING GOVERNORSHIP
ELECTIONS IN ANAMBRA STATE
3.1 Fraud, Intimidation and Violence……………………………….……..28
3.2 The 1999 Governorship Election: Post Electoral Violence …..…….32
3.3 The 2003 – 2004 Governorship Election: Post Electoral Violence…33
3.4 2007 Electoral Violence: Irregularities, Riggings and the Use of
Thugs………………………………………………………………………36
CHAPTER FOUR: FACTORS RESPONSIBLE FOR ELECTORAL VIOLENCE
DURING GOVERNORSHIP ELECTION IN ANAMBRA STATE
4.1 Poor Management of Electoral Process and Elections by the Independent
National Electoral Commission (INEC)…………………………..…….38
4.2 The Inadequacy and the Inability of the Law Enforcement Agents to
provide Security during Elections …………………………………..…..41
4.3 Scramble for State Resources and Electoral Violence…..…………….43
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1 Summary ……………………………………………………..……………50
5.2 Conclusion …………………………………………………..…………….51
5.3 Recommendations…………………………………………….………….52
BIBLIOGRAPHY ……………………………………………….……….………55

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