- Background to the Study
Manpower training is central to the success and sustainability of any organization. This is so because, of all other resources needed in an organization, manpower is the most and crucial for the organization to achieve its set goals and objectives. An informed and vibrant workforce is a big asset to an organization. Training physically, socially, intellectually and mentally is very essential in facilitating not only the level of productivity, but also the development of skilful personnel in any organization. Therefore, human resources are the most valuable assets of any organization. With sophisticated and modern equipment, materials and even sufficient funds in an organization, nothing gets done without manpower. It is recognition of this fact that Abiodun (1999:110) submitted that training is a systematic development of knowledge, skills and attitudes required by employees to perform adequately on a given task or job. It can take place in a number of ways, on-the-job, or off-the-job: in the organization or outside the organization or outside the organization. Similarly, Adeniyi, (1995:159) observed that manpower training and development is a work activity that can make significant contribution to the overall effectiveness and profitability of an organization. He therefore, provides a systematic approach to training which encases the main elements of training. The effectiveness and success of an organisation therefore that manpower in an organization needs to acquire relevant skills and knowledge in order to perform their duties creditably and make meaningful contributions to the success of the organizational goals. Usually, before training programmes are organized, efforts are made through individual and organizational appraisals to identify the training needs arising from skill gap. After the training and development programmes, an evaluation is carried out to ascertain the effectiveness of the programme in line with the need which had been identified. It follows that no organization becomes effective until the individual have and apply the required skills and knowledge. Thus the role played by manpower training and development cannot be overemphasized. Therefore, the need for organizations to embark on manpower development programme has become obvious. The absence of these skill development progamme in an organization, often manifests in three-fold problems of incompetence, inefficiency and ineffectiveness.
Training needs are basically required if there is any shortfall in employee performance or potential performance which can be remedied by appropriate training (Cole, 2002:60). There are many ways of overcoming deficiencies in human performance at work, and training is one of them. It is important to recognize this fact since sometimes, training staff are asked to meet needs which ought to be dealt with in some other way such as improving pay, replacing machinery or simplifying procedures. As lack of training is dysfunctional to organizational performance, adequate care should be taken to recognize when training is needed. According to Nwachukwu, (1998:210) indications that employees in any organization require training are the following: lack of interest in the job, negative attitude to work, low productivity, tardiness, excessive absenteeism rate, excessive complaints, low quality output, high incidence of accidents and insubordination. Whenever these conditions are experienced among staff. Nwachukwu contends that the organization should consider organizing training. As these situations are frequent occurrences in organization, the implication is that training has to be regular. Put precisely, training is a continuous process. It is along this principle, that the 1998 Civil Service Reform in Nigeria stated that training of Civil Servants will no longer be sporadic, unstructured and anemic. It stated further that training would henceforth be considered a right of Civil Servants and an obligation on the government. Once the symptomatic indicators of training needs have been observed the next important thing to do is to determine which areas, training is needed. This step is important because training could be a waste of time and resources, if the areas of emphasis in training are not precisely isolated. Therefore, the need for training has to be identified specifically before embarking on any training programme. In the view of Beach (1975:100) a rational way of identifying the area of training need, is to analyse the entire organization (people, job, technology, etc). This will identify troubled spots where training may help. This analysis involves the following steps: identify organization and production problems: low productivity, high cost, poor material control, poor quality and excessive grievance, excessive violation of rules of conduct and poor discipline, high employee turnover, excessive absenteeism and delayed production.
It also involves job analysis, employee appraisal and testing, collecting employee and managerial opinion: through interviews and questionnaire to obtain views regarding perceived problems areas and deficiencies which would indicate desirable training programmes. anticipating impending and future problems, expansion of business, new products, and new service, new designs, new plants, and new technology, as well as organizational changes, staff inventory and comparing the present staff resource with the forecast needs. Modern organizations are experiencing environments that are not only changing rapidly, but in particular, are increasingly subject to sudden irregularities. As a result, the sustained corporate success that extends over decades and is continuously expanding has come to be a luxury enjoyed by few organizations. The situation is inevitable, considering the fact that an organization is a corporate entity and a product of the society. Furthermore, the administrative work of various organizations is print-based. Various documents are kept in the form of records. These records provide information on the past, present and anticipated future activities of the organization including relevant information from the external environment, which aid decision making. The organisations cannot perform administration duties with accurate, timely, sufficient and relevant information. The deficiencies associated with storage, preservation and managerial process are very cumbersome. Consequently, alternative methods provided by information and Communication Technology (ICT) became very imperative.
The Information and Communication Technology is technology-based and knowledge-driven and is indispensable in the present age. Ward (1995:15) stated that Information and Communication is a collective term covering all those technologies hardware and software, dedicated to the capture, storage and processing, transmission, and presentation of information. The use of Information and Communication Technology in all spheres of human activities has changed the delivery of services in organisations. Computers are at the heart of the Information and Communication Technology revolution because they are fast information and Communication Technology revolution because they are fast information and processing machines configured to receive input in the form of information, systematically process the input and provide organized information that service the need of the user. It has the advantage of improving administrative efficiency and overall quality of management process.
- Statement of the Problem
Manpower has been recognized as vital in realizing organisational goals. There, the management is responsible for facilitating training and development. Similarly, Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is an indispensable part of the contemporary world. Accordingly, its application makes institutions more efficient, thereby engendering a variety of tools to enhance and facilities activities. Consequently, it has been observed that the state of Information and Communication and Communication Technology (ICT) infrastructure in terms of facilities in Abia State University, Uturu may affect manpower training and development. More so, Information and Communication Technology (ICT) depends on logistic such as electricity supply and a conducive environment for it to be effective. The incessant power failure and poor or non-existence of internet/intranet connectivity may be an obstacle to information and Communication Technology (ICT) development. Internet/intranet service providers may not be as numerous as the demand requires and the bandwidth connections is often generally slow. Also, software license and highly prohibitive cost associated with the maintenance and technical support of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) facilities may have influenced the training and development of manpower in Abia State University, Uturu. Upon this premises, the study is guided by the following research questions:
- What are the strategies adopted in employee training and development with
Information and Communication Technology facilities in Abia State University, Uturu?
- What are the challenges affecting the use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in employee training and development in Abia State University, Uturu?
iii. What measure can be taken to minimize the negative effect of the use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in employee training and development in Abia State University, Uturu ?
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The broad objective of this study is to examine the impact of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) on employee training and development in Abia State University, Uturu. The specific objectives of this study are to:
- identify the strategies adopted in employee training and development with Information and Communication Technology facilities in Abia State University, Uturu.
- know the challenges confronting the use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in employee training and development in Abia State University, Uturu.
iii. recommend appropriate measures that would be taken to minimize the negative effect of the use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in employee training and development in Abia State University, Uturu.
1.4 Significance of the Study
The study has both theoretical and empirical significance
Theoretically, the study will contribute to the literature on Information and Communication Technology (ICT), as well as its impact on employee training and development. The study is considered significant because it will add to the existing body of knowledge in the study area. It will therefore constitute a research material, and also satisfy the curiosity of the ordinary reader who is interested in finding answers to questions related to the impact of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) on employee training and development.
Empirically, the justification of the effort here stems from the fact that beyond theoretical discourse, there arise the need for empirical enquiries and investigations, using specific location and context for purpose of assessing particular organizations. Therefore the study is empirically significant because it will furnish practitioners with ideas on how to effectively sustain employee training and development involving Information and Communication Technology (ICT) facilities in organizations. Finally, the study is significant because it will identify the factors which have constrained Information and Communication from facilitating the process of employee training and development in many organizations with Abia State University inclusive.
1.5 Scope and Limitations of Study
The focus for on the impact of information and communication technology on employee training and development in Abia State University, Uturu. This research covers the period from, 2007 to 2015. This period was selected in order to ensure that the research is directed and focused.
1.5.1Limitations of the Study
In research endeavours of this nature it is often fraught with impediments in the process, which are likely to limit the extent of reliability of its findings. The difficulty in obtaining official documents should be noted. Perhaps information which could have help in reaching better conclusions may not have been made available to the researcher in the course of the study. Similarly, responses to questions posed, are likely to have been hampered by respondent’s fear of losing positions, or even sanctioned for disclosing some classification. However, the enormous body of literature in the internet, published and unpublished materials helped the researcher to overcome the effects of these constraints.