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Improving the realism of the Leeds Driving Simulator

10,000 3,000

Topic Description

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Summary
The Leeds Driving Simulator is a research tool that is used to study transport and driving behaviour. When a test subject is interacting within the simulator, visual interaction with a virtual environment occurs. If the virtual environment looks nothing like actual reality then the results obtained from the test cannot be correlated with actual driver behaviour. The main objective of this project is to increase the realism of the virtual scene from which the test subjects interact. As the virtual environment currently contains no aspect of lighting, this is what I shall investigate in this project.
The report describes the design, implementation and evaluation of such a lighting system within the driving simulator environments.

Contents
Summary ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… I
Acknowledgements……………………………………………………………………………………………….II
1. Overview…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 1
1.1 Introduction………………………………………………………………………………………………… 1
1.2 Report Structure ………………………………………………………………………………………….. 1
2. Problem …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 2
2.1 Current Driving Simulator lighting conditions ………………………………………………… 2
2.2 Simulator Sickness………………………………………………………………………………………. 3
2.3 Defining the requirements for the project……………………………………………………….. 3
2.4 Project Objectives ……………………………………………………………………………………….. 4
2.5 Minimum Requirements ………………………………………………………………………………. 5
2.6 Project Schedule………………………………………………………………………………………….. 6
3. Background Research ……………………………………………………………………………………….. 8
3.1 Local Illumination Models……………………………………………………………………………. 8
3.2.Global Illumination Models………………………………………………………………………… 10
3.3 OpenGL Performer ……………………………………………………………………………………. 12
3.4 Implementation of Lighting within OpenGL Performer………………………………….. 14
pfLightSource …………………………………………………………………………………………….. 14
Open Flight File Standard………………………………………………………………………………… 16
4. Minimum Requirements ………………………………………………………………………………….. 17
4.1 Design ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 17
4.1.2 Design Summary…………………………………………………………………………………. 17
4.1.3 Effective Recreation of the Driving Simulator Scene……………………………….. 18
4.1.4 Creation of light sources within the scene ………………………………………………. 18
4.1.5 Movement and positioning of the light source within the scene to simulate
movement of the sun……………………………………………………………………………………. 19
4.1.6 Creation of and modification of the dynamic sky model…………………………… 20
4.1.7 The creation of the night time and day time lighting models …………………….. 21
4.2 Implementation …………………………………………………………………………………………. 22
4.2.1 Reconstructing the Existing Driving Simulator Scene ……………………………… 22
IV
4.2.2 Initial data type created to store the state of the scene………………………………. 23
4.2.3 Creation of the pfLightSource ………………………………………………………………. 24
4.2.4 Shadow Lighting Problems…………………………………………………………………… 24
4.2.5 Light Model Problems …………………………………………………………………………. 25
4.2.6 Implementation of environmental time conditions …………………………………… 26
4.2.7 Movement of the pfLightSource within the scene……………………………………. 28
4.2.8 Completed Environmental Lighting Screen Shots……………………………………. 31
5. Additional Requirements …………………………………………………………………………………. 32
5.1 Design Summary……………………………………………………………………………………….. 32
5.1.2 How the car and street light models can be accessed by Performer ……………. 32
5.1.3Design of the light sources that are going to provide the car and street lighting
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 33
5.1.4 Positioning the light sources within the scene to effectively mimic the both
street lighting and car lighting ………………………………………………………………………. 34
5.2 Implementation …………………………………………………………………………………………. 36
6. Evaluation ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 45
6.1 Evaluation Criteria …………………………………………………………………………………….. 45
6.1.1Evaluation of the Day Time Scene …………………………………………………………. 45
6.1.3 Evaluation of the Night Time Scene………………………………………………………. 46
6.1.4 Evaluation of the Car Head Lights…………………………………………………………. 47
6.1.5 Evaluation of the Street Lights ……………………………………………………………… 47
6.2 User Evaluation…………………………………………………………………………………………. 47
6.2.1 Evaluation of the Day Time Scene ………………………………………………………… 48
6.2.2 Evaluation of the Night Time Scene………………………………………………………. 49
6.2.3 Evaluation of the Car Head Lights…………………………………………………………. 50
6.2.4 Evaluation of the Street Lights ……………………………………………………………… 50
6.3 Evaluation Analysis …………………………………………………………………………………… 51
6.4 Future Work ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 52
Bibliography ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 54
Appendix A – Personal Reflection ………………………………………………………………………… 56
Appendix B – Project Schedule

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