CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background to the Study
‘Management’ and ‘information’ are two commonly used words with many shades of understanding. The shades become shadows when the words are brought together as ‘information management’, where interpretation is subject to a range of interests and contexts. Everyone manages information to some extent personally. When information is to be managed corporately, the perspective from which it is approached varies considerably according to the background of different professions whose orientation may, for example, be behavioural, technological, managerial, or educational (O’Brien & Marakas, 2011).
Yet between these groups, it seems reasonable to assume a shared understanding of the separation between the way information is ultimately used (such as in learning or decision making), and the way that it is organised and processed to be available for use. Such understanding may be given substance as a requirement for intermediation between information processing systems and their users. This may be in the form of direct intercession by assistance to information users who are unfamiliar with the information architecture of the repositories from which they seek information. On the other hand, it may be by shaping of systems to facilitate use through information procedures such as requirements analysis, interface design, classification, and application of meta-information, each of which is directed at anticipating user needs (O’Brien & Marakas, 2011).
Generally, information Management (IM) involves data processing, automation activities, systems analysis, information services and management services. It also incorporates new skills and techniques needed by information managers to deal with information technology (IT) and strategies for developing a corporate information plan. Martin White (1993), gives a working definition of IM as the efficient and effective co-ordination of information from internal and external sources. As Peter Vickers (1985) puts it, management of information is not concerned simply with documents, message and data, but with the entire apparatus of information handling. He identifies the characteristics of information management as follows:
- Information has to be treated as a resource requiring proper management, like money, manpower, and materials.
- At the simplest level, information management involves planning and coordination (if not direct control or use) of the following:
— information handling skills
— information technology
— information sources and services
- Information management requires a careful “watch on” new developments that can contribute to the better management of information resources
- Information management requires an understanding of the patterns of information flow within an organization and it also demands a systematic means of mapping and monitoring such flows. Information management is thus a means by which a centre maximizes the efficiency with which it plans, collects, processes, controls, disseminates and uses its information. It also ensures that the value of the information is identified and exploited to the fullest extent.
In theory as well as practice, the concept of “information management” (IM) has not yet gained a clear and generally accepted interpretation. Three major reasons seems to be relevant in this situation:
- Different interpretations of the term ‘management’: One can easily find tens of definitions, sometimes rather distinct from each other and expressed by eminent management authorities (Vodacek & Vodáčková, 1996). The term management denote the set of proven approaches, methods, experience and recommendations used by executives (managers) for coping with specific activities to achieve the goals of the organization. These specific activities are sequential managerial functions, like planning, organizing, staffing, leading and controlling, being the core of managerial activities.
- Different interpretations of the term “information”: it is known from the vast world of literature as data endowed with relevance and purpose. Converting data into information thus requires knowledge (Drucker, 1990).
- c) Changing leading ideas about the major use and roles of IM since 1960s to the present days.
The development of the term and concept of IM was described in three principal stages. In the first stage (the second half of 1960s), the role of IM had been primarily identified with skill of the right choice and use of data, methods and approaches for ensuring “engineering efficiency” in solving technical and technological tasks. Probably, one of the first use of the term IM was by R.S. Taylor and his colleagues during the conference to engineering efficiency in 1966 (Taylor, 1966). Later in the 1970s, the term IM had begun to be frequently used for some tasks of data processing, for example, in providing order into information resources in technological documentation, libraries etc.
In the second stage (the end of 1970s and during 1980s) the term IM had been used primarily for methods and approaches of professionals working in the field of informatics. The accent had been on the managerial approaches and techniques for efficient handling of information resources, primarily the efficient design, implementation and use of information systems (IS). Efficient information processing through IS had been usually considered as final goal of IM. For example, Michael J. Earl (1989), suggests that information management comprises planning, organization and control of information resources. Effective information management requires planning methods, control procedures and organizational arrangements to be congruent with each other. In the main they also must fit the management practices of the public organisation at large (Earl, 1989). Due to the fact that planning, organization and control constitute key parts in most concepts of sequential managerial functions, one can see that in Earl’s view, IM is considered as managerial support for dealing with information.
In the second stage of the development of IM concept, one can already see and appreciate the emphasis on trans-disciplinary integration of information processes with management approaches. It helped to respect economic criteria of efficiency in designing, implementing and using IS.
On the other hand, one could frequently observe absence or insufficient participation of the end users of information resources in their creation. They rarely posed questions and looked for answers on how IS/IT could help significant innovation of managerial work (to formulate new managerial tasks). One can say in a simplified way that IM was considered as a set of managerial methods and approaches serving the needs of technologically oriented informatics (IS/IT) or “doing things right” (efficiency) (Best, 1996).
In the third stage (since the beginning of the 1990s) the concept of IM reflects more and more on the managerial priority for the use of IS/IT. The accent is on the final use of IS/IT, i.e. innovative solution of managerial tasks, primarily the effective fulfilment of the mission and goals of the organization. One can see the growing attention being paid to the right effectiveness of the information processing (“doing the right things”). As the first example, the Association of Information and Image Management (AIIM in Great Britain) defines IM as the effective production, storage, retrieval and dissemination of information in any format and on any medium to support business objectives (Best, 1996).
As the second example, Martin’s (1995) definition of IM as management of information resources of an organization in pursuit of its aims and objectives. As such, it requires the application of standard management processes of planning and control, while seeking to ensure the day-to-day flows of information for decision-making and the concurrence of information and business strategies within the organization (Martin, 1995).
Until the 1960s, the role of most information management systems was simple: transaction processing, record keeping, accounting, and other electronic data processing (EDP) applications. Then another role was added; the processing of all these data into useful, informative reports. Thus, the concept of management information systems (MIS) was born. This new role focused on developing business applications that provided managerial end users with predefined management reports that would give managers the information they needed for decision-making purposes (O’Brien & Marakas, 2011).
By the 1970s, it was evident that the pre-specified information products produced by such management information systems were not adequately meeting the decision making needs of management, so the concept of decision support systems (DSS) was born. The new role for information management system was to provide managerial end users with ad hoc, interactive support of their decision-making processes. This support would be tailored to the unique decisions and decision-making styles of managers as they confronted specific types of problems in the real world (Martin, 1995).
In the 1980s, several new roles for information systems appeared. First, the rapid development of microcomputer processing power, application software packages, and telecommunications networks gave birth to the phenomenon of end-user computing. End users can now use their own computing resources to support their job requirements instead of waiting for the indirect support of centralized corporate information services departments (O’Brien & Marakas, 2011).
Secondly, it became evident that most top corporate executives did not directly use either the reports of management information systems or the analytical modelling capabilities of decision support systems, so the concept of executive information systems (EIS) was developed. These information systems were created to give top executives an easy way to get the critical information they wanted, when they wanted it, and tailored to the formats they preferred.
Thirdly, breakthroughs occurred in the development and application of artificial intelligence (AI) techniques to business information systems. Today’s systems include intelligent software agents that can be programmed and deployed inside a system to act on behalf of their owner, system functions that can adapt themselves on the basis of the immediate needs of the user, virtual reality applications, advanced robotics, natural language processing, and a variety of applications for which artificial intelligence can replace the need for human intervention, thus freeing up knowledge workers for more complex tasks. Expert systems (ES) and other knowledge-based systems also forged a new role for information systems. Today, expert systems can serve as consultants to users by providing expert advice in limited subject areas (O’Brien & Marakas, 2011).
An important new role for information systems appeared in the 1980s and continued through the 1990s: the concept of a strategic role for information systems, sometimes called strategic information systems (SIS). In this concept, information technology becomes an integral component of business processes, products, and services that help a company gain a competitive advantage in the global marketplace. The mid- to late 1990s saw the revolutionary emergence of enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems (O’Brien & Marakas, 2011). This organization-specific form of a strategic information system integrates all facets of a public organisation, including its planning, manufacturing, sales, resource management, customer relations, inventory control, order tracking, financial management, human resources, and marketing, virtually every business function. The primary advantage of these ERP systems lies in their common interface for all computer-based organizational functions and their tight integration and data sharing, necessary for flexible strategic decision making (O’Brien & Marakas, 2011).
Leading management thinkers suggest that it is not technology, but the art of human and humane-management that is the continuing challenge for executives in the 21st century (Drucker, Dyson, Handy, Saffo, & Senge, 1997). Similarly, Smith and Kelly (1997), believe that future economic and strategic advantage will rest with the organizations that can most effectively attract, develop and retain a diverse group of the best and the brightest human talent in an organisation.
In general, to maintain a competitive advantage, public ministries need to balance the resources available to them to achieve the desired results of profitability and survival. The resources that are available to the public organisation fall into three general categories: physical, organizational, and human resources. In discussing how to gain a competitive advantage in the global market, Porter (1990) noted that management of the human resources is the most critical of the three. The idea of treating human resources as a means of gaining a competitive advantage in both the domestic and the global marketplace has been echoed by other authors. As Greer (1995) states, in a growing number of organizations human resources are now viewed as a source of competitive advantage. There is greater recognition that distinctive competencies are obtained through highly developed employee skills, distinctive organizational cultures, management processes, and systems. This is in contrast to the traditional emphasis on transferable resources such as equipment. Increasingly, it is being recognized that competitive advantage can be obtained with a high quality workforce that enables organizations to compete on the basis of market responsiveness, product and service quality, differentiated products, and technological innovation.
However, effective management of human resources in a public organisation to gain competitive advantage requires timely and effective information on current employees and potential employees in the labour market. With the evolution of computer technology, meeting this information requirement has been greatly enhanced through the creation of information management system. The management of employee information is a critical process that helps a public organisation maximize the use of its human resources and maintain competitiveness in its market. Information management (IM), as was noted earlier, is the collection and management of information from one or more sources and the distribution of that information to one or more audiences. This sometimes involves those who have a stake in, or a right to that information. Management then means the organization of and control over the planning, structure and organisation, controlling, processing, evaluating and reporting of information activities in order to meet client objectives and to enable corporate functions in the delivery of information.
Information management is an umbrella term that encompasses all the systems and processes within an organisation for the creation and use of corporate information. In terms of technology, information management encompasses systems such as: Web Content Management (CM), Document Management (DM), Records Management (RM), Digital Asset Management (DAM), Learning Management Systems (LM), Learning Content Management Systems (LCM), Collaboration, Enterprise Search, etc.
Information management is, however, much more than just technology. It is about the business processes and practices that underpin the creation and use of information in an organisation. Information management therefore encompasses the effective management of people, process, technology and content towards achieving organisational effectiveness. It involves the use of information management systems in achieving organizational objectives through human resources training and development. Yussof and Kasim (2003), revealed that the role of Human Resource Development (HRD) is crucial, in promoting and sustaining growth in public ministries and, HRD; particularly education and training, contributes significantly to economic development in terms of increased worker productivity and income. This implies that the economy becomes more productive, innovative and competitive through the existence of more skilled human capability in the public ministries. Public organizations have been created by humankind and can soar or crumble, and HRD is intricately connected to the fate of any organization. Human expertise is developed and maximized through HRD processes and should be applied for the mutual long-term and/or short-term benefits of the sponsoring public organization and the individuals involved (O’Brien & Marakas, 2011).
In order to maximize the productivity and efficiency of the civil service, every executive, manager or supervisor in a public or private enterprise has the responsibility and indeed the bounding duty to ensure the development of men and women who have requisite knowledge and expertise. The aim is to enable them to contribute their full measure to the welfare, health and development of the enterprise (Onah, 2014) According to Rao (1995), human resource development holds the key for economic development by enabling people to become more productive, because economic development depends upon level of industrial activity of production, which onward depends upon the productivity of human resource. And Yussof and Kasim (2003) asserted that the quality of human resources will determine the success or failure of any development effort, especially concerning industrialization, adopting technical change and global market response. Viewed from this perspective, HRD therefore requires special attention to complement changes in the economic profile of the proposed growth regions.
Furthermore, human resources development lies at the heart of economic, social and environmental development. It is also a vital component for achieving internationally agreed sustainable development goals, including the Millennium Development Goals, and for expanding opportunities to all people, particularly the most vulnerable groups and individuals in society.
Human resources development has been defined as empowering people by fostering the contributory capacities that they can bring to the improvement of their own quality of life and that of their families, communities, enterprises and societies. Over the years, the concept of human resources development has evolved from solely focusing on individual capacity to also building institutional capacity at the national level, through socio-economic policies and development plan and strategies. Human resources development is, therefore, regarded as facilitating the development of national human capacities to achieve sustainable, inclusive, equitable development and, at the same time, enhance well-being of individuals. As such, human resources development (United Nations Office for ECOSOC Support and Coordination of Human Resources Development, 2013)
As global labour markets both shape and adapt to the emerging occupational structures of growing economies, human resources development strategies must balance the demands of new employment sectors with the supply of required skill, through effective information management in organisations. Information and communication technology (ICT), “Green/Blue Economy”, and agricultural development, are among the most vital sectors for the socio-economic development in almost all countries. The need to enhance skills for emerging sectors (i.e., green growth, knowledge economy, intellectual property policy evaluation and management, etc.) has become particularly important in developing countries, which includes Nigeria.
A comprehensive, cross and integrated human resources development approach that is sensitive to gender considerations and attuned to specific needs of vulnerable population is highly needed in Nigeria. This should also incorporate multiple vital areas, such as population, health, nutrition, water, sanitation, housing, communications, education and training, science and technology, and employment. Human resources development also has respect for fundamental human rights, the rights of workers, and occupational safety and health considerations. Approaches that centre on economic and financial policies are threatened by the recent economic and financial crises, so an international community paradigm which seeks transformation of the whole society is needed. Furthermore, strategies for sustainable livelihoods must be grounded in local communities and governance structures, with full involvement of key representatives of civil society in transparent respect for unique geopolitical and cultural settings and diversity
Rapid advances in technology have transformed the workplace and changed the way we learn by impacting the interpersonal communication and collaboration among employees. Many government agencies in Enugu State have witnessed some difficulties in managing their information and implementing these interpersonal communication and collaboration. The reliability and authenticity of information in Enugu State Civil service (being fragile or volatile and vulnerable to alterations), has brought worries to citizens, leading to lack of confidence on the originality of information being generated and stored by the service. If records and information are well managed, the effectiveness of government and Enugu State civil service is enhanced, government pogrammes become more responsive, employee development programmes are easily designed and economies are realized.
Enugu State civil service operation in a modern system of government is based on recorded information, used for planning, employee development, decision-making and control. The civil service plays a very important role in the modern system of government, by carrying out its day-to-day activities of the government policies, programmes and projects as well as their formulation, analysis, monitoring, evaluation and sustainability, and also translates government policies into action (Popoola, 2000). It brings Enugu State government into daily contact with its citizens. Therefore, the government depends on a well-organized information management in the civil service in order to perform its functions creditably, as the civil service decisions, procedures, operations, policies, programmes and projects are found in stored public information and records such as reports, book of estimates, gazettes, correspondences, constitutions, general orders, diaries, cartographic records, and machine-readable records. However, this seems not to be the case with Enugu State civil service as the management of information in the service seems to be seriously flawed. This may be attributed to the manner which the civil service was created and the method to which it has evolved.
The Civil Service of Enugu State has evolved overtime with several attempts at reforms. These reforms in recent times have moved from mild to more intense in line with government’s need to keep up with the developmental needs of the citizenry (Enugu State Ministry of Information, Culture and Tourism, 2013). Enugu State civil service originated from the old Anambra State civil service. Enugu State was created on August 27, 1991 with the city of Enugu as its capital. The state derives its name from the capital city which was established in 1912 as a small coal mining town, but later grew to become the capital of the former Eastern Region of Nigeria (Enugu State Ministry of Information, Culture and Tourism (2013). In 1967, when the Gowon administration created twelve states in Nigeria, Enugu remained the capital of the East Central State of Nigeria, one of the three states carved out of the former Eastern Region.
Nine years later, two states, Anambra and Imo, were carved out of the East Central State and Enugu continued to serve as the capital of Anambra state, with the civil service still in Anambra State. The administrative hinterland of the city became much smaller in 1991 when Anambra State was further split to form Enugu State and the new Anambra State. In 1996, the Abakaliki area, one of the three political and administrative divisions of Enugu State, was carved out and added to a part of Abia State to make up Ebonyi State, which was created in that year along with five others (Enugu State Ministry of Information, Culture and Tourism (2013).
According to Amujiri (1999), the evolution of Enugu State civil service could be said to have passed through five distinct stages;
- As part of a civil service that was largely oriented towards provincial administration between 1914 and 1946.
- As part of a regional civil service from 1946 to 1967 when the military took over the reign of government and states were created.
- As part of the East Central State Civil Service from May, 1967 to February, 1976 when the country, still under the military government, was divided into 19 state structure.
- As part of the civil service of the former Anambra State after the creation of the State in February, 1976.
- And as the civil service of the present Enugu State after the creation of States in August, 1991.
As mentioned earlier, the Civil Service of Enugu State has evolved overtime with several attempts at reforms. These reforms in recent times have moved from mild to more intense in line with government’s need to keep up with the developmental needs of the citizenry. Two key factors account for the heightened need to restructure the Civil Service to meet the ever changing needs of the public. First, is the shift in thrust of governance, which is moving away from party-based politics to performance-based politics. Consequently, the legitimacy of the successive administrations of the State derives from how much of the ‘democracy dividends’ delivered to the people (Enugu State Ministry of Information, Culture and Tourism, 2013).
Second, is the ever-cosmopolitan nature of the State which plays home to widely travelled and exposed Igbos from all over Nigeria and in diaspora. The seed of this ambience started right from the colonial period that made the State one of its administrative hubs in Nigeria. Ever since, the State has been growing with highly enlightened populace that desires and demands services that equates with the global standards and best practices. This cannot be achieved without a well-established information management system and well trained employees to manage them (Enugu State Ministry of Information, Culture and Tourism, 2013).
Information as a valuable asset is a public trust that Enugu State Government must manage on behalf of its people. Effective information management has the potential for making government programmes and services delivery more efficient and transparent. It could also engender collaboration across organizations and informed decision-making by the government and all dynamic organizations. However, the mode in which Enugu State civil service manage their information transactions in the recent past, particularly those in electronic and paper format calls for concern. The employees in Enugu State civil service were trained to manage the paper format of information and lack the needed expertise of managing electronic information.
There was a shift from the traditional paper information management to electronic information management, which signified that the employees ought to be trained to be abreast with the shift, because electronic information and records are fragile in nature due to change in hardware and software used for their creation, storage, processing and use, making them prone to high risks. If damaged or deteriorated, restoration is a difficult task, if not impossible. Most of the employees in Enugu State civil service do not have the necessary skills needed to adequately manage employee information in the service. This results to information systems failure and its inability to cope with the growing mass of information that Enugu State government and the service create.
Enugu State civil service seems to be unable to provide their information and archives managers with training or professional development opportunities, making it difficult for the employees and the service management to retrieve the information they need to formulate, implement and monitor employee training and development policies and to manage key personnel and financial resources.
Good information management allows for good governance, enhances employee development, protects rights and interests, ensures essential evidence, enables accountability for actions, improves the delivery of services, reduces exposure to legal, financial and political risks and ultimately results in good archives which form part of our collective memory and our heritage. Can a systematic information management programme be of any benefit to Enugu State civil service through the development of its most important and valuable asset; its employees? The answer to this pertinent question stresses the salient need for this research.
This study therefore tries to ascertain the role of information management on human resource development in Enugu State Civil service.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Information management involves the development, execution and supervision of plans, policies, programs and practices that control, protect, deliver and enhance the value of data and information assets in an organisation. Prior to the introduction of modern information management technologies in Enugu State civil service, information management was largely limited to files, file maintenance, and the life cycle management of paper-based files, other media and records. With the proliferation of information technology, the job of information management in Enugu State civil service took on a new light, and also began to include the field of data maintenance, electronic data storage, etc. No longer was information management a simple job that could be performed by almost anyone. An apparent understanding of the technology involved, and the theory behind it became necessary. As information storage shifted to electronic means, this became more and more difficult. Employees in Enugu State civil service found themselves tasked with increasingly complex tasks, which involves the constant use of hardware and software resources. With the latest tools available, information management has become a powerful resource and a large expense, as well as risk, for many organizations. It poses a problem, more than it provides a solution where the Enugu State civil service employees lack the necessary and required training to effectively handle the robust data and information that are always on the increase in an organisation. Information management is a complex task that involves considerable staff resources, time, money, complex hardware and software. It is becoming more and more important for Enugu State civil service to have a specific strategy that manages the vast amounts of information, both on paper and electronically, that they have to deal with.
Poor records management has caused serious impediments in several aspects of the public sector, especially in Enugu State civil service. This has negatively affected prompt payments and employment practices, delay in training and development of employees, revamping of government functions and organizational structures, strengthening of financial management and the national legal and regulatory framework of Enugu State civil service. In the absence of a culture of records management, monitoring and evaluation, quality control, and verification cannot proceed as a well-kept record provide the basis for all these, which also engender the rule of law and accountability. They are the foundation upon which a nation may build programs for good governance, poverty reduction, equitable justice, financial accountability, enforceable civil rights, etc. It is imperative, therefore, for Enugu State civil service employees to adopt good information management practices, since this will support effective, transparent and accountable government. Accessible and reliable information will show what decisions were made, actions taken, people who were involved and the rights and responsibilities that exists. Enugu State civil service is faced with several challenges in managing its records and information, particularly electronic records and data. These border on technology obsolescence, inadequate trained personnel, policy formulation and implementation, etc. These have made the structure, content and context of information in Enugu State civil service to be altered indiscriminately.
The basic goal of information management is to harness the information resources and information capabilities of the civil service in order to enable the service to learn and adapt to its changing environment and also enhance employee training and development (Choo 1995, Auster and Choo 1995). Information creation, acquisition, storage, analysis and use therefore provide the intellectual latticework that supports the growth and development of the civil service. Organizing and storing information may be facilitated with the application of information management and technology. Traditional data processing technologies were first used to raise work efficiency. The operational use of computers generated an abundance of detailed information about transactions, customers, service calls, resource utilization, and so on. While such systems are tuned to provide high throughput performance and encourage employee development, they seem to be inefficient and sometimes incapable of retrieving the information that decision makers and the Enugu State civil service management need to have for effective planning and problem solving.
Information management occupies a strategic position in the efficient and effective management of Enugu State civil service. In fact, it is central in the administration of the Enugu State civil service as it documents the planning and implementation of appropriate course of services allowing proper monitoring of work and employees. In the conventional paper based civil service, such as the ministries under study, paper continues to be viewed as the material for records in administrative documentations (Igwoku, 2008). Generally, information management must be guided by some level of confidentiality, proper maintenance, security, preservation of its content and context. However, this is almost a different case in Enugu State civil service. As ancient as information management and record keeping is, Enugu state civil institutions are still deficient in organizing, maintaining, and making records accessible despite the presence of advanced technology. Majority of government and public institutions in Enugu State still process their payrolls, personnel, and official information manually despite the presence of microcomputers. Files are piled up on top of one another in cabinets without any indexing and cataloguing methods, making information and data access tedious and time consuming. The depth of preservation of records in Enugu State civil service is also appalling and this constitutes a problem as it causes delay in service delivery.
Furthermore, public ministries with significant volumes of transactional information could need to reorganize and unify operational data from several sources, and provide friendly but powerful analysis tools that allow decision makers to trawl the raw data for strategic insight, so that, for example, they can discover patterns and opportunities buried in the lodes of data about employees training and development, employees promotion and customer transactions or service calls. The information assets of Enugu State civil service are not confined to the transactional; they vary from the highly ordered to the ephemeral, and some of the most valuable information may be hiding in sales reports, office memos, study reports, project documents, photographs, audio recordings, and so on. The organization, storage, and retrieval of textual and unstructured information is a critical component of information management. Enugu State civil service needs to be able to find and collate information that best describes the current state and recent history of the service. Well integrated archival policies and records management systems that should enable the service to create and preserve its corporate memory and learn from its history are not visible in Enugu State Civil service.
Despite the importance of information management in the civil service, there still persist a lot of problems and constraints of information management in Enugu state civil service. Ajewole (2001), stated that the problem of information management is not with records and information per say, but with those having interface and interactions with these two vital resources. The problem then lies with the employees of the Enugu State civil service that handle these information, as most of them lack adequate training to effectively handle vital information of the service. The problems of information management in Enugu state civil service can be summarized into inadequate knowledge of the life-cycles of records, inertia in implementing effective information management techniques, difficulties in finding information needed to take decisions or respond to inquiry, delays in payment of staff emoluments and fringe benefits, accumulation of administrative matters which ought to have been discharged, but now causing discontent among staff and the public.
Popoola and Oluwole (2007), posit that civil service in Nigeria are often concerned about the alarming rate of misplacement or loss of vital records and the slow speed at which needed records are retrieved from their storage. The potentially severe consequences of the loss or inability to find vital documents are driving Enugu State civil service to seek more versatile information storage and retrieval systems that can capture, store and retrieve text and other unstructured data that are very vital to employee training and development. This nevertheless shows the importance of information management in Enugu State civil service and as such, the essence of this study.
It is in light of the above discussed problems that this study tend to provide valid answers to the following research questions;
- How do the acquisition and utilization of information resources impact on human resource development in Enugu State Civil Service, from 2000 to 2010?
- In what ways do training and orientation programmes for staff enhance information management in Enugu State Civil Service, from 2000 to 2010?
- How do information development and supervision of plans and programmes contribute to human resource development in Enugu State Civil Service, from 2000 to 2010?
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The general objective of this study is to ascertain the role of information management on human resource development in Enugu State. The specific objectives are to;
- examine how the acquisition and utilization of information resources impact on human resource development in Enugu State Civil Service, from 2000 to 2010;
- ascertain the extent to which training and orientation programmes for staff improves the effectiveness of information management in Enugu State Civil Service, from 2000 to 2010; and
- determine how information development and supervision of plans and programmes contribute to human resource development in Enugu State Civil Service, from 2000 to 2010.
1.4 Significance of the Study
This study has both theoretical and practical significance. Theoretically, this study contributes greatly to the existing theories by helping to enrich its bank of knowledge. This was attained through an extensive discussion of the tenets of stage model theory and salient expositions on its application to information management and human resource development in Enugu State. This extensive discussion unravelled the basic tenets stage model theory and brought out its relevance in relation to information management and human resource development, where we established that the two main strategies that Enugu state civil service staff can use to cope with limited capacity of memory stores are selectively focusing their attention on important information and engaging in as much automated processing as possible. We also established that from an educational perspective, it is essential for the employees to become automated (during employee training sessions) at basic skills such as letter and word decoding, number recognition, and simple procedural skills such as learning information management terms.
. Also, it was achieved through the discussion of the findings of the study, which bordered on the impact of information management on the success of human resource development in Enugu State civil service. These salient discussions exposed some vital issues such as the importance of information acquisition, information retrieval, development and storage, which relate to information management techniques and its impact on human resource development in Enugu State civil service.
Empirically, this study serves as a foundation and basis for further researchers that will embark on study of the impact of information management on the success of human resource development in Enugu State. In other words, it serves as a reference point and stimulus to scholars and researchers who are interested or desirous of answers to the myriad of information management problems in Nigeria civil service.
This study is considered very salient as it helps to suggest ways of making Nigeria civil service to maintain a competitive advantage through its findings and recommendations. In order to maintain this competitive advantage, civil service need to balance the resources available to them to achieve the desired results of profitability and survival. The resources that are available to a civil organisation fall into three general categories: physical, organizational, and human resources. In discussing how to gain a competitive advantage in the global market, Porter (1990), noted that management of the human resources is the most critical of the three. Thus, this study suggests ways that will help Nigerian civil service to manage its human resources effectively through employee training and development.
This study is also very significant as it provides valid suggestions on how to effectively manage information in Nigeria civil service so as to enhance productivity and significantly improve service delivery. Information is vital to all organizations since all business processes that make up an organization’s operations and management make extensive use of information. Every business is an information business, information is the glue that holds together the structure of all businesses. Information management can help deliver strategic advantage to organizations through better sensing of the business environment, offering distinctive services and driving down costs. Therefore, this study is very significant as it exposes the importance of information management to civil service in Nigeria.
This study is also considered significant as it helps to educate scholars, students and the masses to better understand the mystery behind the masquerade of information management problems and its consequences on human resources training and organisational survival/productivity.
1.5 Scope and Limitations of the Study
1.5.1 Scope of the Study
This study focused on ascertaining the role of information management on human resource development in Enugu State, from 2000 to 2010. It also bordered on examining the relationship between information management and human resource development in Enugu State. Similarly, the study also tried to ascertain the extent to which training and orientation/exposition contributed to poor information management in Enugu State.
The period of study was from 2000-2010. This time-line was chosen because it embodies the period when Nigeria civil service started to adapt to modern techniques of information management. The researcher choose this period because it represents the period when information management started to attract serious attention from both scholars and practitioners. In collaboration with our position on the choice of this period, Makori (2009) stated thus;