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internal control as an aid to accountability in the public sector (A STUDY OF BIASE LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA, CROSS RIVER STATE) (86 pages)

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Project Description

internal control as an aid to accountability in the public sector (A STUDY OF BIASE LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA, CROSS RIVER STATE) (86 pages)

ABSTRACT

In this study internal control as an aid to accountability in the public sector was researched on using Biase local government area, cross river state as the case study. The major objective of the study was to find out and understand how internal control aids accountability in the public sector and to explain those relevant topics, which will enable any reader to understand and appreciate the important of how internal control aids accountability.

Questionnaires were constructed for the purpose of data collection. The constructed questionnaires were administered to the various departments of Biase local government area. A field study was used to test and establish the validity of the hypotheses. Hence data was carefully analyzed with the aid of simple percentages. The hypotheses were then tested by using chi-square and decision rule which was used in the conclusions. The major findings revealed that, internal control provides desired results in the public sectors; internal control provides for preventing and detecting embezzlement, fraud and errors, for reasonable accounting of liabilities, expenses, revenue and assets. In conclusion, the researcher observed that internal control system has a significant positive impact on every establishment’s profitability and survival.

No organization, regardless of the nature and size can operate successfully without an adequate and effective system of internal control and accountability. For effective application of internal control these recommendations were made. That good, complete and integrated system of accounting should be established. Written manual of accounts operational procedures should be set out. There should be adequate forms and documents with some control features. Accounting system should emphasis employee competence and duties assigned should be commensurate capabilities. Finally, public sectors should effectively utilize the information or reports given to it by internal audit department in handling its financial affairs.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page ………………………………………………………………………………………. i
Approval page …………………………………………………………………………………. ii
Certification …………………………………………………………………………………. iii
Dedication …………………………………………………………………………………… iv
Acknowledgement …………………………………………………………………………. v
Abstract …………………………………………………………………………………………. vi
Table of contents ……………………………………………………………………………. vii
List of tables ………………………………………………………………………………………. x
List of figures ………………………………………………………………………………….. xi

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the study ……………………………………………………………. 1
1.2 Statement of the problem ………………………………………………………….. 3
1.3 Statement of the objectives ………………………………………………………… 4
1.4 Research questions ………………………………………………………………….. 5
1.5 Research hypotheses …………………………………………………………………. 5
1.6 Significance of the study …………………………………………………………… 6
1.7 Scope of the study ……………………………………………………………………. 7
1.8 Limitations of the study …………………………………………………………….. 8
1.9 Definition of terms ………………………………………………………………….. 8

CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

2.1 Concept of internal control ……………………………………………………….. 10
2.2 Factors that characterize effective internal control ……………………….. 11
8
2.3 Classes of internal control …………………………………………………………. 15
2.4 Limitations of internal control ……………………………………………………. 18
2.5 Evaluations of internal control ……………………………………………………. 19
2.6 Internal control and the auditor …………………………………………………… 20
2.7 Public accountability …………………………………………………………………. 23
2.8 Historical overview of the case study ………………………………………….. 28
2.9 Internal control and accountability ……………………………………………… 28

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1 Research design …………………………………………………………………………. 30
3.2 Sources of data ………………………………………………………………………….. 30
3.3 Area of study …………………………………………………………………………… 31
3.4 Population of the study ……………………………………………………………… 32
3.5 Determination of sample size …………………………………………………….. 32
3.6 Reliability of the instrument ……………………………………………………… 33
3.7 Validity of the instrument ………………………………………………………….. 34
3.8 Method of data analysis …………………………………………………………….. 34

CHAPTER FOUR: PRESENTATION OF DATA

4.1 Presentation of data …………………………………………………………………… 37
4.2 Test of hypotheses …………………………………………………………………….. 48

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS.

5.1 Summary of findings ………………………………………………………………… 58
5.2 Conclusions …………………………………………………………………………….. 59
5.3 Recommendations ……………………………………………………………………. 60
BIBLIOGRAPH
APPENDICES

LIST OF TABLES

Table one 3.4 ………… Population of the study
Table two 4.1 ……………… Distribution and collection of questionnaire
Table three 4.2 ………………. Frequencies of responses to question 4
Table four 4.3 ……………….. Frquencies of responses to question 5
Table five 4.4 …………………. Frequencies of responses to question 6
Table six 4.5 ………………….. Frequencies of responses to question 7
Table seven 4.6 ………………… Frequecies of responses to question 21
Table eight 4.7 …………… Frequencies of responses to question 22
Table nine 4.8 …………… Frequencies of responses to question 18
Table ten 4.9 …………….. Frequencies of responses to question 19
Table eleven 4.10 ………….. Frequencies of responses to question 10
Table twelve 4.11 …………… Frequencies of responses to question 14

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 2.3 Classes of internal control
Figure 2.3.1 Organizational control
Figure 2.3.2 Accounting control
Figure 2.3.3 Administrative control
Figure 2.6 Internal control and the auditor
Figure 2.6.1 Why and when internal control should be studied
Figure 2.6.2 Fraud and embezzlement
Figure 2.7 Public accountability
Figure 2.7.1 Status of accountability in Nigeria
Figure 2.7.2 Factors influencing accountbility
Figure 3.4 Population of the study
Figure 3.4.1 Population of Biase local government staff

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Internal control according to Okezie (1999:43) could be likened to the heart”, which regulates the business blood”. No business could succeed without an effective control system. Internal control can also be likened to the brake and steering in a vehicle, which, if there are not there, the business “train” will cash. It can be likened to the laboratory or quality control machinery, which controls the quality of products produced by an organization. It is the centre hob of all financial activities of an establishment.
Internal control is one of the essential means of establishing and maintaining management control of a business. It involves the entire basic element of management control and is itself the main element of the appraisal, measurement and evaluation control.
Effective system of control is a prerequisite for the attainment of organizational goals, but it has remained one of the biggest problems facing modern day business. It is an extremely…. (86 pages) DOWNLOAD FULL MATERIAL.

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