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LAW OF ARMED CONFLICTS IN AFRICA: A STUDY OF THE LIBERIAN CIVIL WAR

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title Page ——————————————————————————————
-i
Approval ——————————————————————————————-
-ii
Dedication ——————————————————————————————
iii
Acknowledgement ——————————————————————————–
iv
Table of Contents ———————————————————————————
vii
List of Tables ————————————————————————————–
x
List of Appendices ——————————————————————————–
xi
Abstract ——————————————————————————————–
xii
CHAPTER ONE
7
1.1. Introduction ————————————————————–
– 1 1.2. Statement of the Problem ———————————————————
—–5
1.3. Objectives of the Study ———————————————————–
–9
1.4. Significance of the Study ————————————————————
-10
1.5. Literature Review —————————————————
-10
1.6. Method of Data Collection ———————————————————–
-44
1.7. Theoretical Framework ————————————————————
-50
1.8. Hypotheses ————————————————————-
-53
1.9. Definition of Terms ————————————————————
-53
CHAPTER TWO: LAW OF ARMED CONFLICTS
2.1. Customary International Law ———————————————————-
-59
2.2. Treaty Law ———————————————————–
-60
2.3. Civilians and Associated Personnel Protected By the Law —————————
-63
2.4. Objects, Designated Areas and Signs Protected By the Law of Armed Conflicts —
-65
2.5. Work and Installations Containing Dangerous Forces ———————————
– 66
2.6. Integrating the Law into Military Operations ——————————————
-69
2.7. The Key Principles Affecting the Conduct of All Military Operations ————-
-71
2.8. Persons and Objects Specifically Protected In All Operations ————————
-73
2.9. Method of Warfare Prohibited In All Operations —————————————
-77
CHAPTER THREE: MECHANISM FOR ENFORCEMENT OF THE LAW OF
ARMED CONFLICTS
3.1. 1868 St Petersburg Declaration Renouncing the Use, In Time of War, Of
Explosive Projectiles under 400 Grammies Weight ——————————–
121
3.2. 1899 Hague Declaration II Concerning Asphyxiating Gases———————-
124
3.3. 1907 Hague Convention in Respecting the Laws and Customs of War
on Land————————————————————————————
125
3.4. 1907 Hague Convention (V), Respecting the Rights and Duties of Neutral
8
Powers and Persons In Case Of War on Land (Part A) —————————-
127
3.5. Convention (V) Respecting the Rights and Duties of Neutral Powers and
Persons in Case Of War on Land (Part B) ——————————————-
128
3.6. 1907 Hague Convention IX Concerning the Bombardment by Naval Forces
in Time of War ————————————————————————–
129
3.7. 1907 Convention XI Relating To Certain Restrictions With Regard To the
Exercise of the Rights of Capture in Naval War————————————-
130
3.8. 1925 Geneva Protocol for the Prohibition of the Use in War of Asphyxiating,
Poisonous Or Other Gases, and Of Bacteriological Methods of Warfare——–
130
3.9. Institutional Mechanism of Enforcement———————————————
131
3.10. 1976 United Nations Convention on the Prohibition of Military or Any Other
Hostile Use of Environmental Modification Techniques—————————
132
3.11. 1980 UN Convention on Prohibition or Restriction on the Use of Certain
Conventional Weapons, Which May Be Deemed To Be Excessively Injurious
Or To Have Indiscriminate Effects—————————————————-
133
3.12. The International Criminal Court——————————————————
135
3.13. Military Mechanism of Enforcement————————————————–
140
3.14. Types of Forces Available To a State for Internal Security Operations———-
141
3.15. Problems Faced By the Armed Forces during Armed Conflicts ——————
143
3.16. The Armed Forces Attitude to Internal Security Operations———————–
145
3.17. Human Rights Standards on the Use of Force—————————————-
146
3.18. Special Rules for Opening Fire———————————————————
147
CHAPTER FOUR: NATURE AND CHARACTER OF VIOLATIONS OF
THE INTERNATIONAL LAW OF ARMED CONFLICTS
IN
THE LIBERIAN CIVIL WAR – TEST OF HYPOTHESIS
ONE
4.1. Violations of the Laws of Armed Conflict by the Insurgents ————————-
152
4.2. Execution Committed By Prince Johnson————————————————
158
4.3. Conscription of Children into Child Soldiers ——————————————–
159
9
4.4. The Taking of Hostage———————————————————————-
160
4.5. Rebels killing of fleeing soldiers———————————————————–
161
4.6. Torture, Inhumane Treatment and Execution of the Detainees————————
162
4.7. Illegal Possession of Small Arms and Light Weapons in the Liberian
Civil War————————————————————————————–
163
4.8. Sexual Slavery in the Liberian Civil War ————————————————
165
CHAPTER FIVE: INSTITUTIONAL MECHANISM OF ENFORCEMENT
OF THE LAW OF WAR IN THE LIBERIAN ARMED
CONFLICT – TEST OF HYPOTHESIS TWO
5.1. The Use of Guerrillas in the Liberian Civil War —————————————
169
5.2. From ECOMOG to ECOMIL ————————————————————-
171
5.3. Establishment of ECOMIL —————————————————————-
175
5.4. The Roles of the United Nations on the Enforcement of the Law of
Armed Conflicts in Liberia ————————————————————-
179
5.5. Disarmament and Demobilization ——————————————————–
182
5.6. Police and Judicial Reform —————————————————————-
188
5.7. Human Rights, Rule of Law & Transitional Justice ————————————
193
5.8. Restoration of Civil Authority ———————————————————–
202
CHAPTER SIX: THE OBSERVANCE OF INTERNATIONAL HUMAN
RIGHT
LAW AND THE CONDUCT OF HOSTILITIES IN LIBERIA

TEST OF HYPOTHESIS THREE
6.1. Non-Conventional Warfare—————————————————————-
208
6.2. Ethnic and Religious Factor—————————————————————
208
6.3. Lack of Control and Command————————————————————
212
6.4. Political Propaganda————————————————————————
213
6.5. Child Soldiers——————————————————————————–
214
10
6.6. Hunger, Poverty and Frustration———————————————————-
215
6.7. Sadism—————————————————————————————–
218
6.8. Analysis ————————————————————————————
218
6.9. Research Findings —————————————————————————
222
CHAPTER SEVEN: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND
RECOMMENDATIONS
7.1. Summary ————————————————————————————-
227
7.2. Conclusion ———————————————————————————–
232
7.3. Recommendations —————————————————————————
234
BIBLIOGRAPHY —————————————————————————–
239
LIST

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