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modification of surface, physical and chemical properties of activated carbons for water purification( 75 pages) CHAPTER 1-5

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75 Pages | chapter 1-5 | PDF and Microsoft Format

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modification of surface, physical and chemical properties of activated carbons for water purification( 75 pages) CHAPTER 1-5

ABSTRACT
The purpose of this work was to study the effect of chemical surface properties of activated carbons for their use in water purification. To achieve this objective, activated carbon in both granular and powdered forms namely: as received and devolatilized carbons were prepared. Proximate analysis of the carbon materials was performed. Mass titration experiments were carried out to determine the point of zero charge of the activated carbon materials. Again, using an ultraviolet spectrophotometer, the adsorption of phenol on as-received and devolatilized activated carbon was investigated. Adsorption isotherms were acquired from which the monolayer adsorption capacities were calculated.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page……………………………………………………….………….i
Approval page……………………………………………………………..ii
Dedication…………………………………………………………………iii
Acknowledgement…………………………………………………….…..iv
Abstract…………………………………………………………………….v
Table of contents…………………………………………………………..vi
List of Tables………………………………………………………………xi
List of Figures……………………………………………………………..xiii
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION…………………………………….1
1.1 Origin and nature of activated ………………………………………….1
1.2 Methods of manufacture of activated carbon……………………………2
1.3 Need for present investigation………………………………………..…3
1.4 Objectives and Scope of the study………………………………….…4
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW………………..…………6
CHE/2007/063 7
2.1 Preamble……………………………………………………………….6
2.2 The adsorption process………………………………………………..6
2.3 Historical background of activated carbon……………….………………….7
2.4 Raw materials for the production of activated carbon………………………9
2.5 Activated carbon manufacturing process……………………………………9
2.5.1 Thermal processing technique……………………………………….….10
2.5.2 Chemical activation technique …………………………………………13
2.5.3 Steam activation technique………………………………………………13
2.6 Properties of activated carbon…………………………………………….14
2.6.1 Physical properties……………………………………………….………15
2.6.2 Chemical properties…………………………………….………….……15
2.7 Structure of activated carbon………………………………….…………..17
2.8 Applications of activated carbons……………………….…………..……19
CHAPTER THREE: EXPERIMENTAL………………………………..……22
3.1 Selection of materials…………………….………………………………22
CHE/2007/063 8
3.1.1 Selection of activated carbon material……..…………………………..22
3.1.2 Selection of adsorbate…………………….……………………………22
3.2 Apparatus used………………………..…………………………………22
3.3 Reagents used……………………………………………………………23
3.4 Modification of the activated carbon………………….…………………..24
3.4.1 Devolatilization of the coconut shell based activated carbon………..…24
3.4.2 Treatment of the activated carbon with nitric acid…………………..…24
3.5 Mass titration……………………………………………………….……..25
3.6 Proximate analysis of the activated carbon material…..………………….26
3.6.1 Moisture content…………………………………………………….….26
3. 6.2 Volatile matter content……………………..……………………….…26
3.6.3 Ash content………………………………………………………..……26
3.6.4 Fixed carbon…………………………………………………………….27
3.7 Adsorption experiment………………………………………………..….27
CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION………………….…28
CHE/2007/063 9
4.1 Mass titration………………….….…………………………………..….28
4.2 Proximate analysis……………………………………………………….36
4.3 Adsorption isotherms………………………….……………………..….37
4.4 Surface coverage.………………………………………………………..45
4.5 Discussion of results…………………………………………………….46
4.5.1 Mass titration…………………………………………………………46
4.5.2 Proximate analysis……………..…………………………….………….46
4.5.3 Adsorption isotherms and surface coverage………………………………………47
CHAPTER FIVE: CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS……..49
5.1 Conclusion…………………….…………………………………………..49
5.2 Recommendations…………………..……………………………..………50
References……………………………………………………….………..51
Appendix A………………………………………………………..………53
Appendix B…………………………………………..………………..….55
Appendix C…………………………………………….……………….…60

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