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Phytochemical analysis on moringa oleifera and azadrichta indica leaves( 81 pages) CHAPTER 1-5

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81 Pages | chapter 1-5 | PDF and Microsoft Format

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Phytochemical analysis on moringa oleifera and azadrichta indica leaves( 81 pages) CHAPTER 1-5

ABSTRACT
Studies were conducted to determine the phytochemicasl present in moringa olrifera and Azadrichta indica leaves. Leaves for this work were washed, room dried ground to powder. The ground leave for both sample were soaked in four different solvent; Ethanol, n-Hexane, Ethyl acetate and water for 24 hours. After the contact elapsed the solvent were filtered to recover the extract. Qualitative analysis was carried out on the extract; the result showed moringa oliefera to contain saponin, flavonoid, tannin, phenol, steroid and glycoside. Azadrichta indica contains; saponin, flavonoid, tannin, Alkaloid, steroid and glycoside. Quantitative anaylsis were jalso carried on the extract and the result showed moringa oliefera and Azadrichta indica to contain in percentage flavonoid (21.8 : 23.80), Alkaloids (5.00 : 8.20), saponin ( 0.70 : 1.10 ), phenol ( 0.76 : 1.49 ), Tannin ( 0.08 : 0.57 ) and Glycoside ( 0.005 : 0.0062 ) respectively for moringa oliefera and Azadrichta indica. In the qualitative analysis water was the best solvent for extraction and quantitative analysis; flavonoid, alkaloid, tannin, saponin, phenol and glycoside have higher percentage in Azadrichta indica than moringa oleifera.

TABLE OF CONTENT
Title page———————————————————————————i
Certification—————————————————————————–ii
Dedication——————————————————————————iii
Acknowledgement——————————————————————–iv
Abstract———————————————————————————-vi
Table of content———————————————————————-vii
List of figure—————————————————————————-xii
List of table—————————————————————————-xiv
CHAPTER ONE
1.1 Background of study————————————————————-1
1.2 Phytochemical———————————————————————3
1.2.1 Activity of phytochemical—————————————————-4
1.3 Statement of problem———————————————————–5
1.4 Aims and Objectives of study————————————————–6
1.5 Significant of study—————————————————————6
8
1.6 Scope of study———————————————————————6
CHAPTER TWO
2.0 Literature review——————————————————————7
2.1 Botany of Moringa oleifera —————————————————-7
2.1.1 Classification———————————————————————7
2.1.2 Origin and Habitat————————————————————–8
2.1.3 Description———————————————————————–9
2.1.4 Ecology and cultivation——————————————————-9
2.1.5 Traditional uses—————————————————————11
2.1.6 Common name—————————————————————-12
2.1.7 Pharmacological activity of Moringa oleifera ————————-13
2.2 Botany of Azadrichta indica ————————————————–18
2.2.1 Classification——————————————————————-18
2.2.2 Origin and habitat————————————————————19
2.2.3 Description———————————————————————19
2.2.4 Ecology and cultivation——————————————————21
9
2.2.5 Traditional uses—————————————————————22
2.2.6 Common name—————————————————————-22
2.2.7 Pharmacological activity of Azadrichta indica ————————-22
2.3 Phytochemical——————————————————————-26
2.3.1 Types of phytochemicals—————————————————-27
2.3.1.1 Tannin————————————————————————-28
2.3.1.2 Phenol————————————————————————-29
2.3.1.3 Saponin———————————————————————–30
2.3.1.4 Steroids———————————————————————–31
2.3.1.5 Flavonoids——————————————————————-33
2.3.1.6 Alkaloids———————————————————————-35
2.3.1.7 Glycosides——————————————————————–36
CHAPTER THREE
3.0 Materials and Methods——————————————————–37
3.1 Collection and preparation of material————————————37
3.2 Equipment / apparatus——————————————————–37
10
3.3 Reagents————————————————————————–38
3.4 Methods—————————————————————————39
3.4.1 Qualitative Analysis———————————————————-39
3.4.2 Preparation of Wagner’s reagent—————————————–40
3.4.3 Preparation of Mayer’s reagent——————————————-40
3.4.4 Test for Alkaloid—————————————————————40
3.4.5 Test for Saponin—————————————————————41
3.4.6 Test for Flavonoid————————————————————-42
3.4.7 Test for Steroid—————————————————————-42
3.4.8 Test for Tannin—————————————————————-42
3.4.9 Test for Glycoside————————————————————-43
3.5 Quantitative Analysis———————————————————–43
3.5.1 Flavonoid determination—————————————————-43
3.5.2 Alkaloid determination——————————————————44
3.5.3 Tannin determination——————————————————-44
3.5.4 Saponin determination——————————————————45
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3.5.5 Glycoside determination—————————————————-45
3.5.6 Phenol determination——————————————————-46
CHAPTER FOUR
4.0 Results and Discussion———————————————————47
4.1 Qualitative Analysis result—————————————————-47
4.2 Quantitative Analysis result————————————————–49
4.3 Discussion of result————————————————————-50
CHAPTER FIVE
5.1 Conclusions———————————————————————–52
5.2 Recommendations————————————————————–52
REFERENCE——————————————————————53 – 54
APPENDIX——————————————————55 – 58
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