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Refining of palm kernel oil (75 pages) CHAPTER 1-5

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75 Pages | chapter 1-5 | PDF and Microsoft Format

Project Description

Refining of palm kernel oil (75 pages) CHAPTER 1-5

ABSTRACT
This work studied the refining of crude palm kernel oil derived from the kernels within the nut of a palm fruit.
This research project was aimed at reducing the non-glycerides present in oil in their crude form using an alkali method of refining.
The crude palm kernel oil was first washed with distilled water by heating the mixture in an electric heater for about 2 hours to reduce the impurities present in the oil in their crude form, degummed with phosphoric acid and neutralized with NaOH (caustic soda).The saponification value, iodine value and acid value was analyzed and their values are: for crude palm kernel oil, 33.1, 695.45 and 746.13 respectively, for neutralized palm kernel oil, 11.22, 725.6 and 687.24 respectively

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Cover Page – – – – – – – – – -i
Title page – – – – – – – – – -ii
Certification – – – – – – – – – -iii
Dedication – – – – – – – – – -iv
Acknowledgement – – – – – – – – -v
Abstract – – – – – – – – – – -vii
Chapter One
1.1 Introduction – – – – – – – – -1
1.2 Background Of The Study – – – – – – -1
1.3 Statement Of Problem – – – – – – -4
1.4 Aims/Objective of the Study – – – – – -4
1.5 Scope of the Study – – – – – – – -5
Chapter Two
2.0 Literature Review – – – – – – – -6
2.1 Vegetable Oils – – – – – – – – -8
2.1.1 Classification of Fats and Oils – – – – – -9
2.1.2 Characteristics of oil Classes Lauric Acid Group – 10
2.1.3. Uses of Vegetable Oil – – – – – – 12
2.2 Method of Extraction of Vegetable Oil – – – – 13
ix
2.2.1 Hydraulic or Mechanical Press Extraction – – 13
2.2.2 Solvent Extraction / Leaching: – – – – – 15
2.2.3 Factors Affecting the Rate Of Leaching – – – – 17
2.4 Methods Of Refining Of Crude Palm Kernel Oil – – 19
2.4.1 Chemical / Alkali Refining- – – – – – 19
2.4.2 Physical Refining – – – – – – – 20
2.4.3 Aim Of Refining – – – – – – – – 21
2.5 Origin Of Oil Palm (Palm kernel Oil) – – – – 22
2.5.1 Palm Oil Processing Unit Operations – – – – 25
2.5.2 Kernel Recovery – – – – – – – 26
2.5.3 Principles Of Preservation – – – – – – 27
2.6 Methods Of Treatment – Crude Palm Kernel Oil – – – 28
2.6.1 Degumming Treatment – – – – – – 28
2.6.2 Bleaching Treatment – – – – – – – 29
2.6.3. Deodorizing Treatment – – – – – – 31
2.7 Fractionation Of Palm Kernel Oil – – – – – 33
2.7.1 Dry Fractionation – – – – – – – 34
2.7.2 Detergent Fractionation – – – – – – 35
2.7.3 Solvent Fractionation – – – – – – – 35
2.7.4 Palm Kernel Oil Fractionated Project s – – – – 36
x
Chapter Three
3.0 Methodology – – – – – – – – 38
3.1 Research design – – – – – – – – 38
3.2 Research setting – – – – – – – – 38
3.3 Instrument for data collection – – – – – 39
3.3.1. Material – – – – – – – – – 39
3.3.2 Equipments – – – – – – – – 39
3.3.3 Reagents – – – – – – – – – 40
3.3.4 Preparation of Reagents – – – – – – 40
3.4 Refining Procedure – – – – – – – 41
3.4.1 C.P.K.O and Distilled Water – – – – – – 41
3.4.2 C.P.K.O and Phosphoric acid – – – – – 41
3.4.3 C.P.K.O and NaOH (caustic soda) – – – – – 41
3.4.4 N.P.K.O and Distilled Water – – – – – – 42
3.5 Characterization of P.K.O – – – – – – 42
3.5.1 Physical Characterization – – – – – – 42
3.5.2 Chemical Characterization – – – – – – 43
Chapter Four
4.0 Results and Discussion – – – – – – 46
4.1 Results – – – – – – – – – 46
4.4 Analysis Table – – – – – – – – 48
xi
4.5 Discussion of Results – – – – – – – 50
Chapter Five
5.1 Conclusion – – – – – – – – 52
5.2 Recommendation – – – – – – – 52
References – – – – – – – – 55
Appendixes – – – – – – – –

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