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Studies on the Morphology, Phenology and Seed Germination of Pentaclethra macrophylla Benth

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
TITLE PAGE———————————————————————————————i
CERTIFICATION ————————————————————————————-ii
DEDICATION——————————————————————————————iii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS—————————————————————————iv
TABLE OF CONTENTS——————————————————————————vi
LIST OF FIGURES———————————————————————————–vii
LIST OF PLATES————————————————————————————viii
LIST OF TABLES————————————————————————————-xi
ABSTRACT ———————————————————————————————x
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background to the study——————————————————————1
1.2 Deforestation of the Nigeria’s tropical rainforests ————————————2
1.3 Statement of the problem —————————————————————–3
1.4 Aim and objectives of the study———————————————————5
2.0 CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Botany of P. macrophylla—————————————————————–7
2.2 Morphology ——————————————————————————–9
2.2.1 Morphological variation——————————————————————11
2.2.2 Positional effects—————————————————————————11
2.2.3 Environmental effects———————————————————————11
2.2.4 Juvenility————————————————————————————12
2.3 Phenology———————————————————————————–12
2.4 Soil – plant interaction——————————————————————–16
2.5 Seed germination—————————————————————————18
2.5.1 Seed Physiology/Ecology—————————————————————–19
3. 0 CHAPTER THREE: MATERIALS AND METHODS
3.1. Meteorological data / climate and location of the study area———————–24
3.2 Vegetation———————————————————————————27
vii
3.2.1 Grasslands———————————————————————————28
3.2.2 Farmlands———————————————————————————-28
3.2.3 Mosaic of farmland/oil palm forest —————————————————-29
3.2.4 Wooded shrub grassland/woodland—————————————————-29
3.2.5 Mature natural forest ——- ————————————————–30
3.3 Study sites———————————————————————————31
3.4 Soil analysis——————————————————————————-31
3.5 Phenology———————————————————————————-32
3.6 Morphological parameters—————————————————————34
3.7 Pollen analysis—————————————————————————-34
3.7.1 Extraction and concentration ———————————————————–34
3.7.2 Acetolysis ———————————————————————————35
3.7.3 Microscopic analysis of pollen temporary slides————————————-35
3.8 Seed germination————————————————————————-35
3.9 Effect of different types of media on the seed germination
of P. macrophylla————————————————————————36
3.10 Effect of mechanical scarification on the seed germination of
P. macrophylla—————————————————————————-36
4.0 CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS
4.1 Morphology of P. macrophylla———————————————————-38
4.2 Morphology of the Germinating Seed of African Oil Bean, P.
macrophylla———————————————————————————39
4.3 Effects of media on the germination of African Oil bean, P.
macrophylla——————————————————————————–39
4.4 Effects of mechanical scarification on the germination of African
Oil bean seeds—————————————————————————-59
4.5 Results of phenology of P. macrophylla from January, 2009 to
December, 2011—————————————————————————61
4.5.1 Reproductive phenology—————————————————————–61
4.5.1.1 Flowering———————————————————————————-61
4.5.1.2 Fruiting————————————————————————————-72
4.5.1.3 Fruit maturation and seed dispersal—————————————————–72
4.5.2 Leaf phenology—————————————————————————-77
4.5.2.1 Defoliation———————————————————————————77
4.5.2.2 Refoliation———————————————————————————-82
4.6 Soil analysis——————————————————————————-82
CHAPTER FIVE: DISCUSSION
5.1. Tree morphology—————————————————————————-93
5.2 Reproductive Phenology——————————————————————–94
5.2.1 Flowering————————————————————————————-94
5.2.2 Fruiting—————————————————————————————-96
5.2.3 Fruit maturation and seed dispersal——————————————————97
5.3 Leaf phenology—————————————————————————–98
5.3.1 Defoliation———————————————————————————–98
5.3.2 Refoliation——-

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