1.1 Background of the Study
Human resource management regards training and development as a function concerned with organizational activity aimed at bettering the job performance of individuals and groups in organizational settings. Training and development can be described as “an educational process which involves the sharpening of skills, concepts, changing of attitude and gaining more knowledge to enhance the performance of employees” (Wikipedia, 2018).
The name of the discipline has been debated, with the Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development(CIDP) in 2000 arguing that “human resource development” is too evocative of the master-slave relationship between employer and employee for those who refer to their employees as “partners” or “associates” to feel comfortable with (Athanasios & Chatzimouratidis, 2012). Eventually, the CIPD settled upon “learning and development”, although that was itself not free from problems, “learning” being an over-general and ambiguous name, and most organizations referring to it as “training and development”.
Training and development encompasses three main activities: training, education, and development (William & Kazanas 2004).Training: This activity is both focused upon, and evaluated against, the job that an individual currently holds. Education: This activity focuses upon the jobs that an individual may potentially hold in the future, and is evaluated against those jobs. Development: This activity focuses upon the activities that the organization employing the individual, or that the individual is part of, may partake in the future, and is almost impossible to evaluate (William 2005).
The “stakeholders” in training and development are categorized into several classes. The sponsors of training and development are senior managers. The clients of training and development are business planners. Line managers are responsible for coaching, resources, and performance. The participants are those who actually undergo the processes. The facilitators are Human Resource Management staff. And the providers are specialists in the field. Each of these groups has its own agenda and motivations, which sometimes conflict with the agendas and motivations of the others (Derek, Laura & Stephen, 2004).
The conflicts that are the best part of career consequences are those that take place between employees and their bosses. The number one reason people leave their jobs is conflict with their bosses. And yet, as author, workplace relationship authority, and executive coach, Harrison, (2005) points out, “Tempting as it is, nobody ever enhanced his or her career by making the boss look stupid.” Training an employee to get along well with authority and with people who entertain diverse points of view is one of the best guarantees of long-term success. Talent, knowledge, and skill alone will not compensate for a sour relationship with a superior, peer, or customer (Harrison,2005).
Many training and development approaches available for organizations are proposed including: on-the-job training, mentoring, apprenticeship, simulation, web-based learning, instructor-led classroom training, programmed self-instruction, case studies/role playing, systematic job rotations and transfers etc(Shawn & Rebecca, 2004).
Typical roles in the field include executive and supervisory/management development, new-employee orientation, professional-skills training, technical/job training, customer-service training, sales-and-marketing training, and health-and-safety training. Job titles may include vice-president of organizational effectiveness, training manager or director, management development specialist, blended-learning designer, training-needs analyst, learning officer, and individual career-development advisor(Cohn & Reeves,2005).
Talent development is the process of changing an organization, its employees, its stakeholders, and groups of people within it, using planned and unplanned learning, in order to achieve and maintain a competitive advantage for the organization. Cohn & Khurana, (2005) notes that the name may well be a term in search of a meaning, like so much in management, and suggests that it be thought of as selective attention paid to the top 10% of employees, either by potential or performance.
While talent development is reserved for the top management it is becoming increasingly clear that career development is necessary for the retention of any employee, no matter what their level in the company. Research has shown that some type of career path is necessary for job satisfaction and hence job retention. Perhaps organizations need to include this area in their overview of employee satisfaction (Cohn &Khurana, 2005).
The term talent development is becoming increasingly popular in several organizations, as companies are now moving from the traditional term training and development. Talent development encompasses a variety of components such as training, career development, career management, and organizational development, and training and development. It is expected that during the 21st century more companies will begin to use more integrated terms such as talent development (Cohn &Khurana, 2005).
1.2 Statement of the Problem
In Nigeria, inefficiency is a very serious problem that needs to bead dressed urgently. Europe faced this same problem in the 18th and 19th centuries and writers such as Max Weber (1947), Vroom (1970), and a host of others were able to address the issue of how organizations can increase output and improve efficiency.
Most organizations find it difficult to identify the training needs, and even where the need is recognized, a lot of time and money is committed to staff training and development. The exercise is often either in-appropriate, haphazard or premised on a faulty diagnosis of organizational training needs. In other situations, where training happens to occur, deployment of staff so trained may be without regard to the skill the staff acquired, leading to frustration of personnel so trained and also general inefficiency in the system. Public enterprises in Nigeria are fond of this practice (Onah, 2008). The workforce is generally under-tapped, under-utilized and therefore falls short of its anticipated contributions to the realization of organizational goals. It is appalling to note that managers in Nigeria have paid little or no attention on staff training programmes often manifest tripartite problems of incompetence, inefficiency and ineffectiveness. Numerous scholars have been writing on how efficiency, competence and effectiveness can be achieved through training.
Among other scholars that highlighted the usefulness of training are (Graig 2006), Akintayo 2006), & Oguntimehin, 2001). They identified the functions of training as follows; increase productivity, improves the quality of work, improves skills, knowledge, understanding and attitude; enhance the use of tools and machine; reduces waste, accidents, turnover, lateness, absenteeism and other overhead costs, eliminates obsolesce in skills, technologies, methods, products, capital management etc. It brings incumbents to that level of performance which needs the performance for the job; enhance the implementation of new policies and regulations; prepares people for achievement, improves man-power development and ensures the survival and growth of the enterprise.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The broad objective of the study is to examine the effect of manpower training and development on employees’ performance in selected Hospitality firms.
The specific objectives are:
- To ascertain the degree to which training and development of employees’ has enhanced performance in hospitality firms in Enugu metropolis.
- To examine the link between training and development, incentives, and performance in hospitality firms in Enugu metropolis.
- To make proposals that will enhance sound labor focused capacity in hospitality firms in Enugu metropolis
1.4 Research Question
- What is the degree to which training and development of employees’ has enhanced performance in hospitality firms in Enugu metropolis?
- What is the link between training and development, incentives, and performance in in hospitality firms in Enugu metropolis?
- What proposals will enhance sound labor focused capacity in in hospitality firms in Enugu metropolis?
1.5 Research Hypothesis
Ho: Training and development of employees’ has not enhanced performance in in hospitality firms in Enugu metropolis.
H1: Training and development of employees’ has enhanced performance in in hospitality firms in Enugu metropolis.
H0: There is no training and development, incentives, and performance in hospitality firms in Enugu metropolis.
H1: There is training and development, incentives, and performance in hospitality firms in Enugu metropolis.