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The effect of temperature on hydrolysis of cellulose (saw-dust) (69 pages) CHAPTER 1-5

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69 Pages | chapter 1-5 | PDF and Microsoft Format

Project Description

The effect of temperature on hydrolysis of cellulose (saw-dust) (69 pages) CHAPTER 1-5

ABSTRACT
The effect of concentration of hydrochloric acid on hydrolysis of cellulose (saw-dust) to glucose was studied on this research project and the steps obtained to achieve this project involved treatment of saw-dust (cellulose) with different concentrations of the acid at constant temperature of 80°𝐶 (350k) for 30mins. This was followed by glucose analysis, some analysis or experiments were done on acid hydrolysis in order to study the effect of (HCL) acid on the hydrolysis of cellulose to glucose. The process used in this hydrolysis was acid hydrolysis in which HCL acid was used at constant temperature of 80oC and the saw-dust used [was obtained by grinding wood with saw] was weighed and mixed with water . Secondly, during this analysis/experiment, it was observed that hydrochloric acid hydrolyzed well from the readings gotten from each result that was carried out during the analysis. Then lastly, glucose analysis was carried out to determine the absorbance and glucose concentration. It was noticed that the best concentration of HCL acid during hydrolysis yields glucose concentration of 0.127g or 1.270%.

TABLE OF CONTENT
CHAPTER ONE
1.1 Introduction …………………………………………………….. 1
1.2 Definition of Terms …………………………………………….. 3
1.3 Statement of the Problem ……………………………………… 4
1.4 Scope and of Study Limitations ……………………………… 5
1.5 Objectives ………………………………………………………….. 6
CHAPTER TWO
2.1 Literature Review ………………………………………….. 8
2.2 History ……………………………………………….. 9
2.3 Project s ………………………………………………….. 10
2.4 Cellulose Source and Energy Store of Crops. ………….. 12
2.5 Structure and Properties ……………………………………. 14
2.6 Biosynthesis …………………………………………………… 18
2.7 Breakdown (Cellucolysis). …………………………………….. 22
2.8 Hemicellulose ………………………………….. 24
2.9 Derivatives ………………………………………………………… 24
2.10 Functionality ………………………………. 29
2.11 Occurrences …………………………………………………….. 30
2.12 Classification of Cellulose …………………………………… 31
2.12.1 Cellulose Acetate. ……………………………………………… 32
2.12.2 Cellulose Acetate Butyrate. …………………………………. 32
2.12.3 Cellulose Nitrate. ……………………………………………… 33
2 12 .4 Methyl Cellulose.- …………………………………………….. 34
2.12.5 Ethyl Cellulose. ………………………………………………… 34
2.12.6 Carboxy Methyl Cellulose. …………………………………. 35
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2.13 Regenerated Cellulose. ………………………………………… 36
2.14 Uses of Sugar. ………………………………………………….. 38
2.15 Sugar in Foods …………………………………………………. 40
2.16 Functions of Sugar. …………………………………………….. 40
2.17 Natural Polymers of Sugar. …………………………………. 41
2.18 Types of Sugar. …………………………………………………. 42
CHAPTER THREE
3.1 Materials and Equipment …………………………………… 46
3.1.1 Materials: ………………………………………………………….. 46
3.1.2 Apparatus: ………………………………………………………. 46
3.1.3 Reagent ………………………………………………………. 47
3.2 Acid Hydrolysis (Hcl) ………………………………………….. 48
3.2.1 Procedure: ……………………………………………………….. 48
3.2.2 Glucose Analysis Colorimetric (Using Benedict’s) Method. 49
3.2.3 Procedure: ……………………………………………………….. 50
The Glucose Concentration (Hcl) Was Determined Using Beer Lambat Law. ……………………………………………… 50
CHAPTER FOUR
Results and Discussion
4.1 Results …………………………………………………………. 52
4.2 Discussion ……………………………………………………….. 53
CHAPTER FIVE
5.0 Conclusion and Recommendation …………………………. 55
5.1 Conclusion ………………………………………………………. 55
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5.2 Recommendation …………………………………………………… 56
References …………………………………………………………………….. 58
Appendix A ……………………………………………………………………. 60
Appendix B……………………………………………………………………. 61

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