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THE EFFECTS OF REFUSE DUMP COMPOST AND POULTRY MANURE ON THE GROWTH AND YIELD OF AMARANTHUS HYBRIDUS L

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
Cover page————————————————————————————————- i
Title page————————————————————————————————– ii
Certification page————————————————————————————— iii
Dedication———————————————————————————————– iv
Acknowledgement—————————————————————————————- v
Abstract————————————————————————————————– vii
List of plates——————————————————————————————- viii
List of tables——————————————————————————————– ix
Table of contents————————————————————————————— xi
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the study————————————————————————- 1
1.1.1 Morphology and taxonomy of Amaranthus hybridus L.—————————- 1
1.1.1.1 Scientific classification——————————————————– 1
1.1.1.2 Plant description—————————————————————- 2
1.1.2 Cultivation of Amaranthus hybridus—————————————————- 3
1.1.3 Some uses of Amaranthus hybridus—————————————————- 3
1.2 Problem Statement——————————————————————————– 4
1.3 Justifications for the study———————————————————————– 6
1.4 Aim and objectives of the study—————————————————————- 7
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Refuse dump compost—————————————————————————– 8
2.2 Poultry manure———————————————————————————- 11
2.3 Amaranthus hybridus L.————————————————————————- 13
2.4 Heavy metals in vegetables——————————————————————— 14
2.4.1 The effects of some heavy metals on humans—————————————- 16
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CHAPTER THREE: MATERIALS AND METHODS
3.1 Collection and preparation of materials——————————————————- 18
3.2 Nursery bed preparation————————————————————————- 19
3.3 Experimental design—————————————————————————- 19
3.4 Refuse dump compost and poultry manure analyses—————————————– 20
3.4.1 Physico-chemical analysis of media————————————————— 21
3.4.1.1 Total nitrogen—————————————————————– 21
3.4.1.2 Available phosphorous——————————————————- 21
3.4.1.3 Exchangeable bases (K, Na, Mg, and Ca)——————————— 22
3.4.1.3.1 Calcium———————————————————– 22
3.4.1.3.2 Magnesium——————————————————- 22
3.4.1.3.3 Sodium and potassium——————————————- 23
3.4.1.4 Total organic carbon———————————————————- 23
3.4.1.5 pH——————————————————————————- 24
3.4.1.6 Moisture content————————————————————— 24
3.4.2 Heavy metals analysis of media——————————————————- 24
3.4.2.1 Mercury———————————————————————– 25
3.4.2.2 Copper————————————————————————– 25
3.4.2.3 Cadmium———————————————————————– 25
3.4.2.4 Zinc—————————————————————————– 26
3.4.2.5 Lead————————————————————————- 26
3.4.2.6 Chromium——————————————————————– 26
3.4.2.7 Iron—————————————————————————- 26
3.5 Transplanting——————————————————————————— 27
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3.6 Data collection——————————————————————————— 27
3.6.1 Plant height—————————————————————————— 28
3.6.2 Leaf area——————————————————————————- 28
3.6.3 Number of leaves——————————————————————– 28
3.6.4 Fresh weight————————————————————————– 28
3.6.5 Dry weight—————————————————————————- 28
3.7 Analysis of heavy metals in various plant parts———————————————- 28
3.8 Statistical analysis——————————————————————————– 29
CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS
4.1 Refuse dump compost and poultry manure analysis—————————————- 30
4.2 Growth and yield parameters—————————————————————– 32
4.2.1 Plant height—————————————————————————— 32
4.2.2 Number of leaves———————————————————————– 34
4.2.3 Leaf area———————————————————————————- 36
4.2.4 Fresh weight of leaves—————————————————————— 38
4.2.5 Fresh weight of stems—————————————————————— 38
4.2.6 Fresh weight of roots——————————————————————- 38
4.2.7 Dry weight of leaves—————————————————————— 44
4.2.8 Dry weight of stems——————————————————————– 44
4.2.9 Dry weight of roots——————————————————————— 44
4.2.10 Fresh and dry weight of seeds——————————————————- 49
4.3 Heavy metals analysis———————————————————————— 51
4.3.1 Concentrations of heavy metals in the leaves of A. hybridus——————– 51
4.3.2 Concentrations of heavy metals in the stems of A. hybridus——————— 51
4.3.3 Concentrations of heavy metals in the roots of A. hybridus———————- 52
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4.3.4 Concentrations of heavy metals in the seeds of A. hybridus———————- 52
CHAPTER FIVE: DISCUSSION————————————————————– 62
CONCLUSION—————————————————————————— 68
REFERENCES————————————————————————————–

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