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THE IMPACT OF ECOWAS PROTOCOL ON FREE MOVEMENT OF PERSONS, GOODS AND CAPITAL IN WEST AFRICA: A CASE STUDY OF NIGERIA-BENIN REPUBLIC BORDER RELATIONS, 1999 – 2012

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title Page – – – – – – – – – – -i
Certification – – – – – – – – – – -ii
Approval Page – – – – – – – – – -iii
Dedication – – – – – – – – – – -iv
Acknowledgements – – – – – – – – – -v
Table of Contents – – – – – – – – – -vi
List of Tables – – – – – – – – – – -ix
List of Figures – – – – – – – – – -x
List of Maps – – – – – – – – – – -xi
Abbreviations – – – – – – – – – – -xii
Abstract – – – – – – – – – – – -xiv
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the Study – – – – – – – – -1
1.2 Statement of the Problem – – – – – – – – -4
1.3 Objectives of the Study – – – – – – – – -7
1.4 Significance of the Study – – – – – – – – -8
1.5 Literature Review – – – – – – – – – -8
1.6 Theoretical Framework – – – – – – – – -27
1.7 Hypotheses – – – – – – – – – – -30
1.8 Method of Data Collection – – – – – – – – -30
1.9 Method of Data Analysis – – – – – – – – -31
CHAPTER TWO: THE HISTORY AND DEVELOPMENT OF ECOWAS PROTOCOL
ON FREE MOVEMENT OF PERSONS, GOODS AND CAPITAL
2.1 Background to the Formation of ECOWAS – – – – – – -33
2.1.1 Objectives of ECOWAS – – – – – – – – -35
2.1.2 Structure of ECOWAS – – – – – – – – -37
2.2 The Enactment of the ECOWAS Protocol on Free Movement of Persons,
8
Goods and Capital – – – – – – – – – -42
2.3 Characteristics of West African Trans-Border Movements – – – – -46
2.4 Border Posts and Checkpoints in West Africa – – – – – -50
2.5 Legal framework for Implementing ECOWAS Policies – – – – -60
2.6 Regulations directly governing the free movement of persons – – – -61
2.7 Right of Residence – – – – – – – – – -68
2.8 Equal treatment and non-discrimination – – – – – – -71
2.9 Right of Establishment – – – – – – – – -73
2.10 Expulsion – – – – – – – – – – -74
CHAPTER THREE: THE IMPACT OF THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE ECOWAS
PROTOCOL ON FREE MOVEMENT OF PERSONS, GOODS
AND CAPITAL ON TRANS-BORDER MOVEMENT ACROSS
NIGERIA-BENIN REPUBLIC BORDER
3.1 The Nature of Nigeria-Benin Republic Border Relations – – – – -76
3.2 Trade relations Across Nigeria-Benin Republic borders – – – – -80
3.3 Corruption and harassment on the part of security personnel across
Nigeria-Benin Republic border – – – – – – – -87
3.4 The Dynamics of Trans-border Movement of Persons, Goods and Capital Across
Nigeria-Benin Republic borders – – – – – – – -93
3.5 Evaluation of the Impact of the Implementation of the ECOWAS Protocol on
Free Movement of Persons, Goods and Capital – – – – – -95
3.6 Appraisal of the Legal Framework for Implementing ECOWAS Policies – -105
CHAPTER FOUR: THE IMPACT OF TRANS-BORDER CRIMINAL ACTIVITIES
AND ARMS PROLIFERATION ON NIGERIA-BENIN REPUBLIC
BORDER RELATIONS BETWEEN 1999 AND 2012
4.1 Trans-Border Criminal Activities and the Implementation of ECOWAS Protocol
on Free Movement of Persons and Goods across the Nigeria – Benin Border -109
4.1.1 Human Trafficking – – – – – – – – – -110
4.1.2 Trafficking and Smuggling in Drugs – – – – – – -112
4.2 The Implication of Arms Proliferation for Nigeria-Benin Republic Border Relations -114
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4.2.1 The Proliferation of Small Arms and Light Weapons (SALWs) in the West
African Sub-Region – – – – – – – – – -114
4.2.2 Past and current attempts to regulate and control small arms – – – -120
4.3 Regional efforts at the Control of Arms Proliferation in West Africa – – -125
4.4 The Threat of Small Arms Proliferation on Nigeria’s National Security and
for The Nigeria-Benin Republic Border Relations – – – – -130
4.5 The Implication of Trans-border Criminal Activities in Nigeria-Benin Republic
Border on Nigerian Economy – – – – – – -133
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1 Summary – – – – – – – – – -137
5.2 Conclusion – – – – – – – – – – -138
5.3 Recommendations – – – – – – – – – -139
BIBLIOGRAPHY – – – – – – – – – – -140
APPENDIX —

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