1.1 Background of the Study
The financial system in any modern economy consists basically
of two markets via:
1} The money market
2} The capital market
The money market provides short term finances for project execution, while the capital market perform all the long term functions of buying, selling and borrowing of long term funds.
The capital market is a highly specialized and organized financial market and indeed essential agent of economic growth because of its ability to facilitate and mobilize saving and investment.
To a great extent, the positive relationship between capital accumulation and economic growth has long been affirmed in economic theories (Anganwu 1993).
Success in capital accumulation and mobilization for development varies among nations, but is largely dependent on domestic savings and inflows of foreign capital therefore, to arrest the menace of the current economic downturn, effort must be geared towards effective resources mobilization. It is in realization of this, consideration is given to the measure for the development of capital
market as an institution for the mobilization of finance from the surplus sector to the deficit sector. The development in the capital market in Nigeria, as in other developing countries has been induced
by the government though prior to establishment of stock. Market in Nigeria, there existed some less formal market arrangement for the operation of capital market. It was not prominent until the visit of Mr. J.B. Lobynesion in 1959, on the invitation of the federal government to advice on the role. Central bank could play in the development of local money and capital market. As a follow up to this, the government commissioned and set up makes recommendation on the ways and means of establishing a stock market in Nigeria as a formal capital market. Acting on the recommendation Lagos stock exchange was established on March 1960, it was incorporated under section 2 cap 37 in September 1961.
With the establishment of central bank of Nigeria in 1959 and establishment of Lagos stock exchange in 1961 the Nigeria stock exchange was established in 1979 by an act in 1979. A review was carried out to take care of the low capital formation, the huge amount of currency in circulation which has held outsi