1.1 Background of the study
Education is a panacea of human development. An all round education denies a man of his ignorance. The word education has been defined in many ways.
Bobson Gbinijie in his speech delivered at Delta State University Abraka on the 12th of August 2002 on the occasion of the inauguration ceremony of thye foundation of education development (FED) defines education as the science that implores the qualities of the third and the mental capabilities of any individual in the society.
According to Harris (2006), education is essentially concerned with the transmission of knowledge. Its central concern is that the pupils or students upon which learning is done will after leaving school know certain things he or she did not know at arrival.
Education management in both field of academic study is a collective group of professionals that includes principles, teachers and educational professionals.
Kerr (2008) believes that for a policy to be qualified as an educational policy it must be distinguished from other policies by the fact that policies on education are part and parcel of educational institution. A policy bring about meaningful relationship between objectives and organizational functions as it discourages deviation from planned course of actions.
The formulation of an educational policy sets the stage for implementation which according to Ukeje (2010) is perhaps the most important aspect of planning. Planning is usually an action which succeed policy formulation but proceeds implementation.
Management policy is a set of basic principles and associated guidelines formulated and enforced by government bodies of an organization to direct and limit its action in pursuit of long term goals.
Before 1977, there was no record that there was effective evidence of effective teaching of business studies in secondary schools. What could be said to be quite visible in Delta State and in Nigeria as a whole are Economics, Book keeping and Commerce which were usually introduced to students as from year three in the old secondary system (Fanfuwa 2003).
In the early days of the colonial administration, business studies aimed at training the students to be interpreters in church and clerical officers. The training received by Africans met the needs of the colonialist such as business studies they believed that entrance of mutual understanding foster trade relations and promote cultural values. In case of business studies the emphasis was on acquisition of special skills in typewriting, salesmanship, store keeping and also on secretary duties, accounting and so on. These courses are designed to provide specialized training relevant to business studies, to relate knowledge and skills to working environment. This was probably one of the reasons why the National Board for Technical Education (NBTE) recommended work experience or industrial training for business studies in secondary schools and polytechnics (Onwubiko, 2006).
A national curriculum conference was organized in 1969 which renewed the inherited curriculum. “educational policy inherited from Britain at independence” and identified a new national goal for Nigerian education. This led to the development of the new business studies curriculum for all aspects of education in Nigeria including elementary, secondary, technical and university education. (Fanfuwa, 2003).
The national policy on education was later edited which was the second edition, it anchored on Nigeria’s philosophy on education as enuuunciated through the nation’s objective. Nigeria has five main national objectives as provided by the second national development plan and accepted as the necessary foundation for the national policy on education. They are the building of:
- A free and democratic society
- A just and egalitarian society.
- A united strong and self reliant nation
- A great and dynamic economy
- A land of bright and of opportunities for all citizens.
The implementation process of business studies curriculum was guided by the following specific objective: to find out the training provision of teachers of business studies, for their preparation to implement the integrated syllabus in order to determine the attitude of teachers of business studies towards secondary schools. Business studies syllabus helps to determine the teaching learning process and the strategies used and to determine the technique used by teachers of business studies in evaluating the curriculum.
Today the curriculum objective of business studies in Nigeria is not only to prepare people to enter into clerical and related positions, but also to prepare, manage and employ them to be workers in the institution of business to give extension and retaliation education to those already employed in business occupation.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Over the years, the gap between educational management policy and the goal attainment due to inadequate implementation of these policies of business studies curriculum has become a great concern to many observances and also the negative attitude of students towards business studies and lack of educational materials affect their knowledge of business studies.
1.3 Purpose of the Study
The major purpose of the study is centered on finding out:
- The implication of poor implementation on educational management policies in business studies curriculum in Delta state.
- How can policy improve business studies curriculum.
- What strategies can be adopted to ensure better policy management.
1.4 Research Question
The study attempts to provide answers to the following questions.
- Is educational management policy in line with business studies curriculum?
- Is there any relationship between the performance of business students and the teachers’ qualification?
- What evaluation techniques do teachers in business studies need to implement educational policy in the cause of the study?
- How do government agencies contribute to educational management policy formation in Delta State?
- Is lack of instructional materials a problem in preparation and implementation of business studies curriculum in Delta State?
1.5 Research Hypothesis
Based on the above stated problem and research question, this research work is designed to test the following hypothesis.
HO1: Negative attitude of students affect their knowledge in business studies and the implementation of the curriculum.
HO2: Lack of proper educational management npolicy may affect the preparation and implementation of business studies curriculum.
HO3: Lack of good business studies teachers affect the implementation of the curriculum.
HO4: Students taught by qualified business studies teacher perform better than those taught by unqualified teachers.
1.6 Significance of the Study
The study will identify the strategies used in implementing business studies curriculum which the curriculum developers or designers and government agencies has made on the management of education policy in the state. Hence the study intend to investigate the factors responsible for students poor performance in business studies in Delta State and better management and enforcement of the policy recommended by government and secondary school authorities which will lead to better performance of students in business studies inorder to achieve the stated objectives.
1.7 Scope of the Study
This study focuses on educational management policies and how business studies curriculum can be enforced or implemented in schools in Delta State.
1.8 Limitation of the Study
The basic limitation of the study which has hindered it from covering a wider scope than this are: period of time available for the study and limited finance.
1.9 Definition of Terms
The terms below as used frequently in this study are defined below:
- Academic Performance: it is regarded as the display of knowledge attained or skills shown in the school subject. Such achievement are indicated by test scores or by marks assigned by teachers. It is also regarded as school evaluation of students, classroom work as qualified on the basis of marks or grades.
- Curriculum: it is a treat laid down on the syllabus, the pattern of social laid routines in the day to day life in schools and classroom situations.
- FED: foundation for education development.
- NBTE: national board for technical education
- Policy: a plan of action given by education board, agreed and chosen.
- Qualified Teachers: teachers who passes NCE, B. Ed, B.Sc (Ed) PGDE and so on.
- Learning: This is the change in human capacity and disposition which can be retained and which is not easily ascribed to the process of growth.
Policy: the process of putting a plan or decision