Sale!
Placeholder

The kinetic study on hydrolysis of cellulose (saw-dust) (59 pages) CHAPTER 1-5

10,000 3,000

59 Pages | chapter 1-5 | PDF and Microsoft Format

Project Description

The kinetic study on hydrolysis of cellulose (saw-dust) (59 pages) CHAPTER 1-5

ABSTRACT
This research project studied on the kinetics of hydrolysis of cellulose to glucose. The steps employed to achieve this project involved extraction of cellulose from sawdust and subsequently, hydrolysis of starch to simple sugar. This was followed by glucose analysis. Different experiments were conducted during acid hydrolysis to study the various acids on the hydrolysis of cellulose to glucose. The saw-dust was extracted from the wood by grinding using saw. The process used in the hydrolysis was acid hydrolysis in which two major inorganic acids (Hydrochloric and Sulfuric) were used at constant temperature of 80oC. During this experiment, it was observed that Hydrochloric acid hydrolyzed most, followed by Sulphuric acid. Finally, sugar analysis was carried out to determine the acid with the highest yield of glucose and the best acid for the hydrolysis. It was noticed that the yield of glucose was relatively high from HCl at 1.280% concentration, followed by H2SO4 at 0.940%. It was also seen from the graph that the absorbance yield increases as the glucose concentrations increases in terms of HCl. Therefore, the best acid for acid for acid hydrolysis is HCl.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – I
Caritas logo – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – II
Dedication – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – -III
Certification – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – IV
Acknowledgment – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – -V
Approval page – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – -VI
Abstract – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – -VII
Table of contents – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – VIII
CHAPTER ONE
1.1 Introduction – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 1
1.2 Sources of cellulose – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 2
1.3 Hydrolysis – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 3
1.4 Statement of the problem – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – -4
viii
1.5 Relevance of the study – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 5
1.6 Objective and scope of the study – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – -6
CHAPTER TWO
2.1 Literature review – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 7
2.2 History of cellulose – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 11
2.3 Occurences – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 12
2.4 Energy store of plants – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 13
2.5 Biosynthesis of cellulose – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 14
2.6 Structures of cellulose – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 15
2.7 Classifications of cellulose – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 16
2.7.1 Cellulose Nitrate – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 17
2.7.2 Cellulose Acetate – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 18
2.7.3 Cellulose Acetate Butyrate – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – -19
2.7.4 Ethyl cellulose – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – -20
2.7.5 Methyl cellulose – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 20
2.7.6 Carboxy Methyl cellulose – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 21
ix
2.8 Hemicellulose – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 23
2.9 Breakdown (cellulolysis) – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 23
2.10 Functions of cellulose – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 24
2.11 Uses of sugar – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 25
2.12 Functions of sugar – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 27
2.13 Properties of cellulose – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 28
2.14 Methods of producing glucose from cellulose – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – -29
CHAPTER THREE
3.0 Methodology – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – -30
3.1 Materials and Equipment – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 30
3.1.1 Apparatus – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – -30
3.2 Reagents – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 31
3.2.1 Hydrolysis (Acid hydrolysis) – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – -32
3.2.2 Calorimetric Analysis of Glucose (using Benedict‟s solution) – – – – – – 33
x
CHAPTER FOUR
4.1 Results – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – -35
4.2 Tables – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – -36
4.3 Discussions – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 39
CHAPTER FIVE
5.1 Conclusion – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 41
5.2 Recommendation – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 42
References – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 43
Appendix I – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 45
Appendix II – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 47
List of Tables – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 49
List of figure – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –

NOTE: ALL listed project topics on our website are complete material from chapter 1-5 which are well supervised and approved by lecturers who are intellectual in their various fields of discipline, documented to assist you with complete, quality and well organized researched materials.   See frequently asked questions and answeres