Security has to do with the process connected with alleviation, assuaging any kind of threat to man and his cherished values. It is such an important concept that every state, organization and human person desire. This is why Buzan asserts that “security is about freedom from threat and ability of state and society to maintain independent identity and their functional integrity against forces of change, which they see as hostile, while the button line is survival” (Buzan to Afolabi 2014:1) Generally, security is an elastic concept which attracts view opinions in different fields and study and its day to day activity of men. It is referring to safety from harm and danger which may constitute threat to human existence. This is in consonance with perspective in Imobighe when he affirms that: Security has to do with freedom from danger or threat of a nation’s ability to protect and develop itself, promote it’s cherish values and legitimate interest and enhance the well-being of its people (lmobighe, 1990: 224).
Therefore internal security could be seen as the freedom from or absence of those tendencies which could undermine internal cohesion and the cooperate existence of a country and its ability to maintain its vital institution for the promotion of its core values and socio-political and economic objection as well as meet the legitimate operation of the people. The present challenge posed by armed robbers attacks, kidnappings, political assassinations, trans-border crimes, espionage, smuggling, insurgency, oil bunkering and incessant vandalization of public infrastructures in Nigeria require the effort of the government, security outfits and entire Nigeria citizenry. Security outfits include.
- The Nigeria Police Force
- Nigeria Security and Civil Defence Corps
- Nigeria Immigration Services
- Nigeria Prisons Services
- Nigeria Custom Services
- Federal Road Safety Corps
- Nigeria Fire Services,
- State Peace Corps in some states and numerous registered private security organizations.
Responsible Nigerians are now skeptical about the capability of our security outfits and government of the day to curb the ugly trend.
The pre-eminent security outfits – the Nigeria Police have been incapacitated to subdue the menace of criminality in Nigeria while the Nigeria Security and Civil Defence Corps with the new armed squad men seem unfit to make an impact apart from their humanitarian services. One may infer that internal security has attracted very little attention among our leaders and academician. The porosity of Nigeria borders and infiltration of weapons and ammunitions from
neighboring states account for the inefficiency of Nigeria Custom Service and Immigration Service. Bluntly speaking, activities of criminals are the major yardstick by which internal security could be measured. One of the elements of a society is the presence of criminals who are minority in number, but they are so toxic that they trouble the peaceful co-existence of the society. It should be noted that if citizens are not secure, then the state is not secure. Threats to internal security amount to the threats to National security. This study therefore examines the duties of security outfits in Nigeria and identifies their present security challenges in Nigeria. The Nigeria Police Force is the dominant security and law enforcement agency established in Nigeria. Section 114(1) of the 1999 constitution of Federal Republic of Nigeria provided that “there shall be a Police Force for Nigeria which shall be known as the Nigeria Police Force, and subject to the provisions of this section…” The Nigeria Police is as old as Nigeria itself and has seven departments (‘A’-‘G’) with specified duties i.e Finance and Administration, Operations, Logistics and Supply, Investigation, Training, Research and Planning together with Information and Communication.
Police Force are vested by several statutes (i.e Police Act, Criminal Procedure Code, Criminal Procedure Act and the Public Order Act) with broad powers to investigate crimes, to apprehend offenders, interrogate and prosecute suspects, grant bail to suspects pending completion of investigation, search and seize properties suspected to be stolen or associated with crime, serve summon and host of others (Alemika, 2013:32). With the statutory provision/function of the Police, the organization has not been able to fight crime efficiently in the country. The organization has been bedeviled with inadequate funding; lack of modern technological equipment; and so on…
1.1 Statement of the Problem
The persistent security problems and the inability of the Nigeria Police Force (NPF) in ensuring
security and safety of life and property in the country are worrisome. The sources of security
challenges in the country are numerous and cannot be blamed on one part of the system alone.
They vary from the government to the police down to the people in the society.
On the part of the police, there are many inadequacies and problems which stand as obstacles
responsible for its abysmal performance. Most Nigerians describe police as a motley crowd of
lazy, inefficient, corrupt uniformed men and women contributing to the perpetrating of crimes
such as mass killing, intimidation, rape, extrajudicial killings/summary execution and other
heinous crimes against citizens they are paid to protect ( Uhunmwuangho and Aluforo, 2011).
According to Ikeji (2013) that the escalation of violence in the north of Nigeria perpetrated by
Boko Haram today is linked with the police extra-judicial killing of the leader of the group,“Mohammed Yusuf” in July 2009 in Borno State. It is also common with the police to falsely label innocent people as armed robbers, while the real criminals are working freely in the society doing what they know to do best. They falsified post mortem result and to worsen the matter, people either criminals or none criminal disappear from there custody without good explanations and families of the innocent victims are faced with extortion.
The Nigeria police Force (2008) in there annual report noted that the police is handicapped because of combination of factors that plagued them, among which are; lack of resources, poor government support, poor condition of service, lack of appropriate and adequate training and illequipped workforce. Coped with this are the issue of police extortion and corruption and other vices common among the police system which contributes to their lack of efficiency. Alemika(1999) posit that police corruption is a serious issue because they are expected to be moral as law-enforcement agents. If the police which were employed and catered for with the peoples money to protect and detect crimes are themselves corrupt and also a party to crimes, then the society is at the mercy and grace of the criminal. The above among many others contribute to the Police and the challenges of insecurity in the country.
1.2 Objectives of the study
The main objective is of the study is the management of security Challenges in Nigeria and the specific objectives are to;
- Examine connection(s) between inefficiency on the part of law enforcement agencies and insecurity in Nigeria.
- Analysis of the factors that contribute to insecurity in the country.
- Examine the causes/challenges facing the management of security in Nigeria.
1.3 Research Questions
- Is there any connection(s) between police inefficiency(by police we mean law enforcement agencies in general) and insecurity in Nigeria.
- Are there factors that contribute to insecurity in Nigeria?
- What are the causes of challenges facing the law enforcement agencies and their ability to curb insecurity?
1.4 Research Hypotheses
Ho1: There is a relationship between an effective law enforcement and crime reduction as well as low crime rate.
Ho2: There is no relationship between an effective law enforcement and crime reduction as well as low crime rate.
1.5 Research Methodology
This research work adopted survey research method and made use of primary data as the main
source of data collection through the use of the instrument of questionnaire. The study randomly
selects one hundred (100) respondents from two major local government area of Lagos, namely, Alimosho and Agege. These local government areas are commonly known as the hot bed of various criminal activities carried out by the criminal elements in the states. The questionnaire sought information on questions that were relevant to the Nigeria police and the challenges of insecurity in Nigeria. The data collected will be statistically analyzed through Frequency and simple percentage method with table presentation.
- SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF STUDY
The scope of this research work is quite broad that it encompasses the investigation of the management of security challenges in Nigeria. This is because of its spontaneous nature. In view of the limitations of this study various factors contributed in the researcher’s comprehensiveness and totality in carrying out the study. Among these factors are scarcities of relevant materials on the issue due to its continuous evolving nature and virginity, financial constraints and other task of campus engagements and the fact that the crisis experienced its apex in the course of the research interval. Despite, the aforementioned short comings and hindrances, the research study no doubt turned out to be successful.